Specifications of Raw Olive Pomace as an Energy Source: A Statistical Approach

Main Article Content

Khalid M. Tawarah

Abstract

The present article is concerned with providing statistics-based specifications for raw olive pomace in Jordan. These specifications, together with other quantitative data pertaining to the last few olive harvest seasons, were believed to be essential for recognizing the relevance of raw olive pomace (jift) as a valuable renewable energy source in Jordan. Calculations based on average annual production of raw olive pomace, net calorific values, and the 2017 summer prices of raw olive pomace, diesel, and kerosene had shown that about thirteen million USD can be saved when raw olive pomace is combusted for heat generation instead of diesel or kerosene. The raw olive pomace samples used in the present work were collected over five olive harvest seasons, (2006, 2008-2011). The replicates of several measured characteristic properties of raw olive pomace were treated as one data set for deriving olive pomace specifications based on sound statistical analysis. The main results of the statistical analysis are those concerned with the 95% confidence intervals of the populations’ means of several raw olive pomace characteristics. The results obtained on dry basis are: 3.070 ± 0.170, 1.079 ± 0.125, 6.787 ± 0.306, 52.322 ± 1.171, and 35.271 ± 1.115% for the percentages of ash, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, respectively. Also, the gross and net calorific values were found to be 22.269 ± 0.793 and 20.542 ± 0.795 MJ/Kg, respectively. The estimated 95% confidence interval of a population mean was assumed to represent the upper and lower limits of a given property of the raw olive pomace. The findings of the present work will be considered for developing standard specifications for raw olive pomace in Jordan.

Keywords:
Olive Pomace, olive mill solid residue, calorific values, fuel specifications, normal quantile-quantile plots

Article Details

How to Cite
M. Tawarah, K. (2018). Specifications of Raw Olive Pomace as an Energy Source: A Statistical Approach. Chemical Science International Journal, 22(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.9734/CSJI/2018/40045
Section
Original Research Article