Chemical Science International Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Chemical Science International Journal&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-706X)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/CSIJ/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all aspects of chemical science. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (Chemical Science International Journal) (Chemical Science International Journal) Thu, 03 Oct 2019 09:52:47 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of the Water Quality of Boreholes in Selected Areas in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria <p>The water quality of selected boreholes in Oredo, Egor and Ovia North-East Local Government Areas in Benin City metropolis was assessed in terms of their physical, microbial and chemical parameters. A total of nine water samples (three per local government) were collected from randomly selected public boreholes in the month of July, 2018. The physicochemical parameters determined and values obtained are as follows: Electrical conductivity ranged 12.85 to 101.94 µS/cm, Temperature 25.00 to 25.01, pH of 4.32 to 5.55, TDS 0.67 to 4.00 mg/l, COD 3.20 to 16.00 mg/l, Turbidity 1.14 to 5.38FTU, Cl<sup>-</sup> 106.50 to 426.00 mg/l, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> 0.41 to 2.87 mg/l, TSS 0.33 to 1.67 mg/l, TS 1.33 to 4.33 mg/l, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> 23.73 to 41.48 mg/l, Mg 0.03 to 0.61mg/l, Ca 0.10 to 0.41 mg/l, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> 7.00 to 22.00 mg/l, Na 0.20 to 7.75 mg/l, K 0.41 to 1.20 mg/l, Mn 0.01 to 0.11 mg/l, Fe 0.01 to 0.02 mg/l, Zn 0.01 to 0.65 mg/l, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>- </sup>0.07 mg/l for all locations, while some metals like Cd, Pb were not detected. Microbial evaluation was done on the samples to assess the level of E. coli, coliforms and bacteria. The principal component analysis result extracted two components each from the three LGAs; In Oredo LGA, Factor 1 accounted for 84.9% while Factor 2 accounts for 15.1%. In Egor LGA, Factor 1 accounts for 51.1% while Factor 2 accounts for 48.9%. In Ovia North-East LGA, Factor 1 accounted for 59.0% while Factor 2 accounts for 49.0% contributions.</p> D. E. Ogbeifun, U. D. Archibong, I. E. Chiedu, E. E. Ikpe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 03 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Soils and Vegetables Samples from Kericho West Sub-county, Kenya <p>The present study was carried out to investigated the presence of heavy metals (essential and non- essential); Pb, Fe, Cu, Mn and Cd in soils and vegetables such as <em>Brassica oleracea</em>, <em>Brassica oleracea</em> <em>Acephala</em> and <em>Amaranthus palmeri.</em> These soils and vegetables were collected randomly from local farms in Kericho West Sub-County. The samples were analysed for heavy metal by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrophotometer (ICPE 9000) to determine the levels of the heavy metals. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals ranged in vegetables:- Manganese (86.33-113.00 mg/kg), Copper (15.67-36.00 mg/kg), Iron (319.33-977.67 mg/kg), Cadmium (10.33-29.00 mg/kg) and Lead (31.67-53.67 mg/kg) as well as in the soils; Mn (172.33-201.00 mg/kg), Cu (1.33-3.33 mg/kg), Fe (63.67-98.00 mg/kg), Cd (3.67-5.33 mg/kg) and Pb (5.00-5.67 mg/kg). The data obtained was analysed by using SPSS version 20.0 for descriptive statistics and one- way ANOVA. From the analysis of heavy metals in vegetables, from Sosiot the concentration of Manganese and copper were significantly different at p-value &lt; 0.05, while Iron, Cadmium, Lead and Manganese were not significantly different at p-value &gt; 0.05; from Kabianga Division, Manganese and Iron were significantly different at p-value &lt; 0.05. Copper, Lead and Cadmium were not significantly different at p-value &gt; 0.05; from Kiptere Division, Manganese, Iron and Copper had no significant difference at p-value &lt; 0.05. Cadmium and lead were significantly different at p-value &gt; 0.05. Manganese had the lowest transfer factor between 0.42 and 1.15. The highest ratios were observed from copper ranging from 15.67 to 36.00 in all vegetables.</p> Leonard Bett, Ongera Gilbert, Wangila Phanice, Shadrack Mule ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 10 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Local Spices Used in Nigeria <p>Comparative study of the proximate and mineral components of five local spices (<em>Denniettia tripetala, Monodora myristica, Piper guineense, Syzygium aromaticum, Xylopia aethiopica and</em>) were investigated.&nbsp; The proximate composition revealed that the spices had considerable carbohydrate ranging from 26.2 –&nbsp; 53.4%, crude fibre 13.6 – 23.7%, crude protein 5.67 – 10.9%, but low ash 2.41 – 5.56%, moisture 8.61 – 17.7%&nbsp; and fat 2.34 – 24.3%; except <em>D.tripetala</em>&nbsp; and <em>M. myristica</em> with high moisture content of 17.7%&nbsp; and crude fat content of&nbsp;&nbsp; 24.3%, respectively.&nbsp; The EDXRF analysis shows the presence of mineral elements in the order of K ˃ Ca ˃ Fe ˃ Zn ˃ Sr &gt; Se ˃ Mo ˃ Cu ˃ Mn ˃ Br &gt; Rb. Statistical analysis indicates that there is no significant difference (α = 0.01, 0.05) in the mean contribution of the various sample. However, there is a relationship between the constituents <em>of P.guineense and S. aromaticum, X. aethopica, D. tripetala</em> and the elements (Mn, Br) and (Se, Zn). Generally, the findings indicate that the five spices are good sources of nutrients and mineral elements which could be exploited as great potentials for drugs and/or nutritional supplements.</p> Lydia M. Okorafor, Ishaq S. Eneji, Rufus Sha’Ato ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 18 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Esterification on Physicochemical Properties of Cellulosic Fabric using Balanites Aegyptiaca Seed Oil <p>This paper presents the results of some physicochemical properties of cellulosic fabric obtained by esterification using 50 cm<sup>3</sup> of oil extracted from the seed of <em>Balanites aegyptiaca</em>.</p> <p>The oil was extracted under reflux with hexane which gave 40% yield and 0.22% moisture content. The identified cellulosic materials 10 cm and 21 cm x 2.5 cm) were subjected to purification process of scouring, bleaching and mercerization to obtain cleaner, whiter and stronger fabric that could withstand esterification treatment.</p> <p>The yarn crimp was 25% and 15% for warp and weft direction respectively, while the grey fabric gave the lowest of 5% and 8% for warp and weft directions. The linear density (45 tex) was recorded for the esterified fabric compared to 37 tex for the grey fabric along warp direction. The fabric sett increased from 24 thd/cm for grey to 27 thd/cm for esterified along warp direction and 16 thd/cm to 23 thd/cm along weft direction. There was an obvious reduction in shrinkage from 31 for mercerized fabric to 28 along warp direction after esterification and 21 to 19 along weft direction. The tensile parameter was 262.60 N and 166.24 N with extension of 13.92 mm and 12.23 mm along warp and weft directions respectively while the grey fabric recorded 223.87 N and 109.39 N with extensions of 3.64 mm and 3.56 mm in warp and weft direction respectively. There was a remarkable improvement in the dry and wet crease recovery angles after esterification (105º dry and 65º wet, 102º dry and 59º wet) along warp and weft direction respectively. The grey fabric gave the lowest crease recovery (50º dry and 37º wet, 45º dry and 35º wet) along warp and weft directions respectively.</p> <p>The esterified fabric recorded lower water absorption. The improvements in the investigated properties may be due to dimensional stability, flexibility and fineness due to esterification. This research is commendable because biodegradable organic seed oil is used to modify the physicochemical properties of cellulosic fabric for the first time. These incredible effects of the seed oil on cellulose is an immense contribution to knowledge, hence the oil is recommended for replacement of the present day toxic chemicals used in textile finishing of cellulosic fabrics.</p> F. I. Omizegba, K. A. Bello, H. M. Adamu, D. E. A. Boryo, J. O. Abayeh, H. Akanang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 31 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000