Main Article Content
The phytochemical screening, anthelmintics, and characterization of Spermacoce verticillata crude ethanolic extracts were carried out using standard methods. The research is aimed at investigating the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of Spermacoce verticillata and Cochlospermum tinctorium plants for possible active components. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Tannin, Phenol, Fatty acid and Cardiac glycoside, Terpenoid and Saponin. The result of the anthelmintic activities showed that Spermacoce verticillata have paralysis time ranging from 25.9 -71.6 mins with death times ranging from 39 - 90.1 mins at concentrations range between 25 - 100 mg/cm3 The results of Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Analyses using TLC, CCH, IR, NMR GC-MS of c leads to the Isolation of two compounds namely Hexacosa-9,11-dienoic acid (fatty acid) and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (Pentacyclic triterpenoid) with paralysis/death time at concentration of 50 mg/cm3 of 22.5 mins and 36.3 mins for the fatty acid and 13.2 mins and 20.1 mins for the pentacyclic triterpenoid. The results were compared with standard drug (Albendazole) which showed higher activity than the crude extracts but lower than the isolated compounds. The results of this work therefore confirmed the traditional claim of using the plant for the treatment of helminthiasis disease.
Tariq AK, Chisht MZ, Ahmad F, Shawl M. Anthelmintic efficacy of Achillea millifolium against gastro intestinal nematodes of sheeps: in vitro and in vivo studies. Journal Helminthology. 2008;82:3.
World Health Organization; 2008.
Trease GE, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed. Saunders Publishers, London. 2002;42-44, 221-229, 246-249, 304-306, 331-332, 391-393.
Sofowora AE. Medicinal and traditional medicine in Africa. Vol. 2 Spectrum Books Ltd. 1993;142-146.
Zenebe S, Feyera T, Assefa S. In vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus. BioMed Research International. 2017; 6:ID 1905987.
Omale J, Ubimago OT. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of saba florida extracts against Nigerian adult earthworm (Terrestris lubricoids). American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics. 2014;2(6):758-766.
Mayo DW, Pike RM, Forbes DC. Microscale organic laboratory: With multistep and multiscale synthesis. 5th Edition J Wiley and Sons. Hoboken, NJ. 2011;21:681.
Venugopala R, Liu RH. Phytochemicals in diets for breast cancer prevention: The importance of resveratrol and ursolic acid. Food Science and Human Wellness. 2012; (1):1-13.
Pascal AO, Fidele NK, Meva’a M, Jean CN, Wolfgang S. The potential antimalarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants. Part 1: A pharmacological evaluation of alkaloids and terpenoids. Malarial Journal. 2013;12:449.
Horvath PJ. The nutritional and ecological significance of tannins and related Polyphenols, Phd Thesis, Cornell, University Ithaca, NY, USA; 1991.
Anthanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL. Anthelmintic effects of condensed tannin toward different gastro intestinal nematodes of sheeps: In vivo and in vitro studies. Vet parasitol. 2001; 99:205-219.
Maisale AB, Attimarad SL, Havadagatti DS, Karigar A. Anthelmintic activity of fruit pulp of cordial dichotoma. Int. J. Res. Ayurv. and Pharm. 2010;2:597-600.
Hemamlini K, Rajani A, Uma V, Sundari RE. Anthelmintic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Sophora interrupta. Int. Res. J. Pharm. 2013;4(8):148-150.
Duddley W, Ian F. Spectroscopic methods in organic chemistry 6th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill Education Berkshire UK; 2006.
Sun H, Zhang J, Ye Y, Pan Y, Shen Y. Cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids from the rhizome of Astible chinensis. Helvetica Chimica Acta. 2003;86:2414-2422.