Open Access Original Research Article

Succinicate Bridged Polymeric Complexes of Copper (II) and Zinc (II) Acetylacetonate

Abdullahi Mustapha, Ladi Musa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 280-285
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7529

Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts were treated with 2,4-pentanedione to synthesize copper (II) acetylacetonate and zinc (II) acetylacetonate. These complexes were subsequently cross linked with succinate to produce corresponding bridged dimmers. The UV- visible spectrum of the complex showed absorption maximum at around 660nm, while the infrared spectra exhibited the absorption bands at 1419 cm-1 and 1429 cm-1 for the Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, respectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of a Bioactive Phenylpropanoid from Ocimum sanctum L. Leaves through Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods

Supreet Upadhyaya, S. N. Tewari, Jashoda Behera

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 286-297
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6609

Aims: This study aims at characterization of purified active ingredient isolated from commonly available botanical plant, Ocimum sanctum L. and to assess its potential for deployment in integrated disease management strategy of a staple food crop rice (Oryzae sativa L.) and rice based crop groundnut (Arachis hypogea) as an environment friendly approach for management of serious diseases of these two crops in lieu of synthetic chemicals.

Study Design: Spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods were used.  Bioassay experiments were designed as per Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and statistical analysis was done using Cropstat 7.2 developed by International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Natural Plant Products, Crop Protection Division, Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack-753006 (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Odisha, India.

Methodology: Partial purification of active principle was conducted through Column Chromatography in polarity gradient solvent systems followed by single spot isolation of active compound and mass collection through Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC).For characterization, Spectroscopic techniques viz., UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, Mass and elemental analysis were conducted. For screening of different partially purified fractions of column against Pyricularia grisea, Conidial Germination Test method was preferred. To assess the fungitoxic activity of active principle against mycelial growth of five phytopathogenic fungi viz., P. grisea, Helminthosporium oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia lunata and Aspergillus niger, Poisoned Food Technique was used.

Results: FT-IR data of active compound was in conformity with FT-IR of eugenol available in literature, 1H-NMR revealed presence of 12 protons, 13C-NMR showed the presence of 10 C atoms, DEPT along with 13C-NMR corresponds to the presence of substitution at 1, 2 and 4 positions of benzene ring. Mass spectrum reveals the presence of base peak at 164 that corresponds with the molecular weight of eugenol. Elemental analysis showed that percentages of C, H and O in the isolated compound were in conformity with calculated values of those in eugenol. The compound was found to exhibit broad spectrum fungitoxicity against five fungal pathogens tested.

Conclusion: The isolated and purified compound from O. sanctum (Krishna i.e. Black) was characterized as Eugenol. It may be further used as an eco-friendly organic fungicide but only after developing suitable formulation and its evaluation under in-vivo conditions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Equilibrium Isotherm on Fe3+/Fe2+ Adsorption onto Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon (PKSAC): A Low-cost Adsorbent

Uzoije Atulegwu Patrick, Uche Cosmas Chinedu, Ashiegbu Darlington

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 298-325
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7149

Adsorption of Fe3+/Fe2+ from a polluted shallow well water onto a palm kernel shell activated carbon (PKSAC) has been studied.  Batch experiment was adopted to study the Removal efficiency of Fe3+/Fe2+ on varying contact time, temperature, adsorbent loading and concentrations. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic were also studied. Removal efficiency progressed with contact time till the peak adsorption time of 100 minutes when the efficiency remained at equilibrium. Also, removal efficiency got to equilibrium at the peak values of 80ºC, 4.8g and 12.5mg/l for temperature, adsorbent loading and concentration variations respectively. The adsorption isotherm models fitted the isotherm data got at 25ºC, 40ºC and 80ºC in this order; Langmuir > Temkin>Freunlich.  The dimensionless separation factor of 0.012, 0.017 and 0.015 for 25ºC, 40ºC and 80ºC respectively confirmed favorable adsorption of Fe3+/Fe2+ on the PKSAC adsorbent. Langmuir  adsorption capacity  increased from 203.9mg Fe3+/Fe2+/g to 389.3 mg Fe3+/Fe2+/g when the temperature increased from 25ºC to 40ºC but decreased to 308.1 mg Fe3+/Fe2+/g  at temperature of 80ºC. The kinetic models described the kinetic study data got at 25ºC, 40ºC and 80ºC as follows; power-function>second-order>Elovick>intra-diffusion>first-order kinetics. Mass transfer through liquid film diffusion controlled the adsorption of Fe3+/Fe2+ onto PKSAC. Negative values of the Thermodynamic parameters ( ,  and ) got at various temperature values showed   favorability of adsorption of Fe3+/Fe2+ onto PKSAC. It is therefore concluded that PKSAC removed Fe3+/Fe2+ from aqueous solution.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Conformational Changes on the Native Fluorescence of Aqueous Humic Materials

Leah Shaffer, Ray Von Wandruszka

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 326-336
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7991

Aims: To elucidate the effect of induced conformational changes on the native fluorescence of aqueous humic materials.

Study Design: The conformation of dissolved humates was changed by adjustment of a variety of environmental factors and the resulting fluorescence emission, excited at 240nm was monitored in the 300-465nm range.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA; April to August, 2012

Methodology: The fluorescence spectra of a number of humic and fulvic acids in different solution environments were measured with a photon counting fluorimeter. Attention was focused on the emission range centered on 400 nm and the intensity of the peak observed in this region was interpreted in terms of conformational changes.

Results: The addition of a multivalent cations produced distinct changes in the native fluorescence of dissolved humic materials that had otherwise broad and featureless emission spectra. A series of divalent cations were found to produce these emission changes. Microaggregation brought about by alternative causes, such as changes in pH, concentration, and solvent, produced similar outcomes. Chain length and rigidity of the humic polyanions also had significant effects.

Conclusion: The appearance and variation of a 400-nm emission peak was rationalized by invoking the formation of pseudomicellar structures that incorporated the emitting entity and provided limited access to water.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Obtaining of Re-S Thin Films from Thiocarbamide Electrolytes and Influence of Various Factors on Alloy Composition

E. A. Salakhova, A. M. Aliyev, K. F. Ibraghimova

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 337-347
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/5878

The joint electrodeposition of rhenium and sulphur from thiocarbamide electrolyte was investigated in this study. By measuring the cycling volt-ampere curves the field of potentials, in the presence of which the joint electrodeposition of rhenium with sulphur takes place has been determined. The joint deposition of rhenium and sulphur was associated with depolarization; additionally, depolarization is powered by the energy produced in the formation of ReS2 compounds. We examined the influence of current density, thiurea concentration, temperature, and acidity on the composition and quality of cathode sediments. We found that with increasing current density and temperature, the electrolyte concentration of rhenium in the alloy increases; for thiocarbamide, the opposite was observed.




Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical, Functional Properties and Amino Acid Composition of Raw and Defatted Cashew Kernel (Anacardium occidentale)

Ogungbenle Henry Niyi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 348-356
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7405

The proximate, minerals, anti nutrients, functional properties and amino acid of cashew kernel were studied. The results showed that the raw sample had high crude fat (48.1±0.5%), while the defatted sample had high crude protein (31.5±0.1%) and high crude fibre (4.21±0.01%). The samples contained nutritionally valuable minerals and essential amino acid for body development. The samples also contained low levels of anti-nutrients: tannin (0.71-1.00%) and oxalate (4.63-5.75mg/g) which would not retard the functionalities of the food properties.


Open Access Original Research Article

High Sensitive and Selective Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Trace Level of Manganese in Some Real, Environmental, Biological, Soil, Food, Fertilizer and Pharmaceutical Samples Using Bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) Orthophenylenediamin

M. Jamaluddin Ahmed, M. Tazul Islam, Shahanaz Parvin Lucky

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 357-383
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7313

A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive spectrophotometric method is present for the determination of manganese at trace level using bis(2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde) orthophenylenediamine (HNA-OPD-HNA) has been proposed as new analytical reagent for the direct non-extractive spectrophotometric determination of manganese(II). HNA-OPD-HNA reacts in a slightly acidic (0.000002-0.00001M H2SO4) with manganese (II) in 50% N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) to produce highly absorbent an orange chelate which has an absorption maximum at 508 nm. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The average molar absorption co-efficient and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 4.89×106 L mol-1cm-1 and 10 ng cm-2 of manganese (II), respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.02-25 mg L-1 of manganese(II) having detection limit of 1 μg L-1 and quantification limit of the reaction system were found to be 10 μg L-1 and RSD 0-2%. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:1 (Mn: HNA-OPD-HNA). A large excess of over 60 cations, anions and complexing agents (like, chloride, phosphate, azide, tartrate, oxalate, SCN- etc.) do not interfere in the determination. The developed method was successfully used in the determination of manganese in several Standard Reference Materials (alloys and steels) as well as in some environmental waters (portable and polluted), biological samples (human blood, urine and hair), soil samples, food samples (vegetables, fruits, tea, rice, wheat), fertilizer samples and pharmaceutical samples (multivitamin-mineral tablet and syrup), solution containing both manganese (II) and manganese (VII) and complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for biological and food samples were comparable with AAS and were found to be in excellent agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s=±0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1).


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics and Mechanism of Palladium (II) Catalyzed Oxidation of D-(+) Galactose by Cerium(IV) in Aqueous Acidic Medium

Manoj Kumar Ghosh, S. K. Rajput

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 384-400
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7223

Kinetics of palladium (II) catalyzed oxidation of D-(+) galactose by cerium (IV) have been studied titrimetrically in aqueous acidic medium in the temperature range 308-333 K. The reaction has been found to be first order with respect to D-(+) galactose in catalyzed reactions. The rate of reaction decreases with increasing sulphuric acid. The reaction proceeded through formation of an intermediate complex, which was proved by kinetic method. The observed stoichiometric ratio was 1:2 in the oxidation of D-(+) galactose. From the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction, the Arrhenius equation and various activation parameters have been computed. Arabinose and formic acid have been identified as main oxidation products of the reaction. A plausible mechanism from the results of kinetic studies, reaction stoichiometry and product analysis has been proposed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Possessions of Chemical Reaction on MHD Heat and Mass Transfer Nanofluid Flow on a Continuously Moving Surface

Md. Shakhaoath Khan, Ifsana Karim, Md. Sirajul Islam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 401-415
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/5422

A two-dimensional steady flow of an electrically conducting, viscous incompressible nanofluid past a continuously moving surface is considered in the presence of uniform transverse magnetic field with chemical reaction. A mathematical governing model has developed for the momentum, temperature and concentration boundary layer. Similarity transformations using to modify the boundary layer equations. Whereas this prominent transformations are used to transform the principal nonlinear boundary layer equations for momentum, thermal energy and concentration to a system of nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations with fitting boundary conditions. The coupled differential equations are numerically simulated using the famous Nactsheim-Swigert shooting technique together with Runge-Kutta six order iteration schemes. Pertinent results with respect to embedded parameters are displayed graphically for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles and were discussed quantitatively. Skin-friction, Heat transfer rate (Nusselt number) and mass transfer rate (Sherwood number) are illustrated for the various important parameters entering into the problem separately are discussed with the help of graphs. Finally for the accuracy of the present results a comparison with previously published research work are accomplished and proven an excellent agreement.

Open Access Review Article

Progress of Red Mud Utilization: An Overview

Harekrushna Sutar, Subash Chandra Mishra, Santosh Kumar Sahoo, Ananta Prasad chakraverty, Himanshu Sekhar Maharana

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 255-279
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7258

Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. This paper provides a review on the comprehensive utilization of red mud globally. The research progress of safe stockpiling of red mud is summarized. Enormous quantity of red mud is generated worldwide every year posing a very serious and alarming environmental problem. This paper describes the production and characterization of bauxite and red mud in view of World and Indian context. It reviews comprehensively the disposal and neutralization methods of red mud and gives the detailed assessment of the work carried until now for the utilization of red mud in different fields. The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized with their environmental concerns.