Open Access Original Research Article

Fe0.2Al1.8Zn1O4 Composite: An Efficient Catalyst for the Synthesis of 1, 4-Dihydropyridine Derivatives

Vijay Kumar M. Joshi, Sunil U. Tekale, Sushama S. Kauthale, Sanjay K. Vyawahare, Ashok M. Zine, Sunita B. Shinde, K. L. Ameta, Rajendra P. Pawar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 416-423
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/4957

A simple and rapid protocol has been developed for the synthesis of 1, 4-dihydropyridine derivatives in short reaction time to afford the products in excellent yield. Operational simplicity, clean reaction, high yield, simple work up are the significant advantages of the present protocol.


Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Congo Red Dye Using an Adsorbent Prepared from Martynia annua, L. Seeds

V. Sivakumar, M. Asaithambi, P. Sivakumar, N. Gopal

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 424-442
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6680

Activated carbons M1 and M2 were prepared from the seeds of Martynia annua, L. using H2SO4 and H3PO4 as chemical activating agents respectively. In this study, utilization of these adsorbents for the removal of Congo red (CR) dye from aqueous solution was investigated. The physical, chemical and morphological properties were determined using XRD, BET and SEM techniques. Experiments of CR adsorption on the prepared adsorbents were conducted using batch technique and their results were also compared. The data were tested with five different isotherm models; it fitted to Langmuir isotherm for M1 and for M2, four of the isotherm models fit with high correlation coefficient. Maximum adsorption capacity (mg/g) obtained for M1 was 12.45 and 29.85 for M2. Pseudo-second-order kinetics explained the adsorption process much better with good correlation coefficient. The adsorption rate was film diffusion controlled during the initial stages, and in the later stages the rate was controlled by intra particle diffusion. Increasing the temperature of the system decreases the equilibrium time accompanied by exothermic removal of CR. These studies indicate that the prepared adsorbent showed good adsorption characteristics towards textile dyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Quality of Brine from Selected Sites in Lafia-Obi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, North-Central Nigeria

Alao David A., Amadi Akobundu N., Alabi Adeoye D., Aminu Tukur

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 443-456
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6580

A comparative geochemical assessment of brine from selected sites in Lafia-Obi, Nassarawa State, North-central Nigeria was carried out in the present study. The study is aimed at determining the quantity, quality and sustainability of the brine for salt production. The Piper diagram, Stiff and Scatter plots revealed that the water type in the area is NaCl type. The result of the geochemical analysis indicates that the brine from the study area is good for domestic and industrial purposes as it is free from heavy metal and microbial contamination. The present investigation shows that brine from the area can be marketed locally and internationally due to its high quality. It is recommended that the Nasarawa State Government should establish a brine processing factory in Lafia-Obi Local Government in order to harness the huge brine deposit in the area. This will bring about socio-economic development of the area in particular and the state in general.


Open Access Original Research Article

Potentiometric Determination of Nickel (II) Ion Using Zirconium (IV) Antimono Tungstate as an Electroactive Material

Harish K. Sharma, Pernita Dogra, Nitika .

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 457-471
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/5527

Aims: The research work is based on the fabrication of ion selective Electrode based on Zirconium (IV) antimono tungstate.

Study Design: The Study was designed to make ion selective electrode for transition metal ions.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, M M. University, Mullana (Ambala). It can be used for five months i.e Jan - May 2013, with a good reproducibility.

Methodology: Zirconium (IV) antimono tungstate having ion exchange capacity of 0.30 meq g-1 for Na+ ion was synthesized by sol –gel method and characterized by physicochemical techniques. The proposed electrode was prepared by mixing the ionophore with the required amount of epoxy resin. Then potentiometric studies were carried out.

Results: Epoxy-based membrane of zirconium (IV) antimono tungstate (50% ZrSbW and 50% epoxy resin) reveals a sub-Nernstian potentiometric response with the slope of 20 mV per decade for Ni2+ over a wide concentration range (10−6 to 10−1 M). The response time of the electrode is quite low and could be used for a period of 5 months with a good reproducibility. The proposed electrode reveals very high selectivity for Ni2+ in the presence of a wide variety of metal ions such as Zn2+,  Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Ce3+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Pr3+ Y3+ and Fe3+ at concentrations 1×10−3 M and 1×10−4 M. Effect of internal solution concentration was studied. The proposed sensor can be used in the pH range of 2.90 - 9.20. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Ni2+ ions against EDTA.

Conclusion: Zirconium (IV) antimono tungstate can be successfully used as electro-active material for making a nickel (II)-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrodes have reasonably good lifetime, detection limit, pH range and selectivity coefficient. They can also be used as indicator electrodes for trace level determination of Nickel ions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cure Characteristics and Rheological Properties of Modified Kaolin-natural Rubber Composites

L. E. Yahaya, K. O. Adebowale, B. I. Olu-Owolabi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 472-480
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6575

Aim: This study seeks to examine the cure characteristics and rheological properties of modified kaolin – Natural rubber vulcanizates.

Methodology: Metal salt of rubber seed oil (RSO-Na) was used to modify kaolin and was then introduced into Natural Rubber (NR) by melt intercalation to produce vulcanizates mixed with various compositions of pristine and modified kaolin (2 - 10 Parts per hundred rubbers).

Results: Characterization of the modified kaolin using X- ray diffraction revealed increase in d-spacing from 7.15 to 14 Ǻ. Torque minimum (ML), torque maximum (MH) which are correlated with hardness increased with increasing organoclay loading. The storage modulus (G1), loss modulus (G11 and complex viscosity (Ƞcomplex) increased with increase in modified kaolin thus showing remarkable improvements of the vulcanizates.

Conclusion: The results from the study indicate that the modified filled kaolin has a dramatic improvement on the NR composite compared to the pristine.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Determination of Trace Level of Cadmium in Real, Environmental, Biological, Tobacco, Fertilizer and Soil Samples Using 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 Pentahydroxyflavone

M. Jamaluddin Ahmed, Tasnima Zannat, Zannatul Fatema

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 481-503
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/5829

A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amount of cadmium using 2/, 3, 4/, 5, 7- pentahydroxyflavone (morin) has been developed. Morin reacts in a slightly acidic (0.000001-0.000012M H2SO4) in 50% ethanolic solution with cadmium to give a deep greenish- yellow chelate which has an absorption maximum at 422 nm. The reaction is instantaneous and the absorbance remains stable for over 24 h. The average molar absorption co-efficient and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 4.09 × 106 L mol-1cm-1 and 4.0 ng cm-2 of cadmium, respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.01 - 25 mg L-1 of cadmium with a correlation co-efficient value 0.9996 for Cd-morin complex. The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:2 (Cd:morin). The detection limit and quantification limit of the reaction system were found 1µg L-1 and 10µg L-1, respectively. A large excess of over 50 cations, anions and complexing agents (like, chloride, tartrate, azide, citrate, EDTA, SCN- etc.) do not interfere in the determination. The developed method was successfully used in the determination of cadmium in several Standard Reference Materials (alloys and steels) as well as in some environmental waters (inland and surface), biological samples (human blood, urine and hair), tobacco, fertilizer, soil samples and complex synthetic mixtures. The results of the proposed method for biological samples were comparable with AAS and were found to be in good agreement. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = ±0.01 for 0.5 mg L-1).


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Colloidal Particles of Ageratum conyzoides L. Plant Extracts

J. T. Barminas, A. I. Onen, Y. Musa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 504-515
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6810

Colloidal particles with controlled size and composition are of fundamental and technological interest as they provide solution to many technological and environmental challenges. In this study, an environmentally friendly approach was adopted to synthesize silver colloidal particles using aqueous extract of A. conyzoides L. plant. The reaction of this plant’s extract with a solution of 1mM AgNO3 changed its colour into reddish brown colour due to reduction of silver ions to silver atoms. UV- Visible and FTIR spectroscopy techniques were employed to characterize the colloidal particles. The UV-Visible spectroscopy revealed the formation of silver colloidal particles by exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption maximum at 420nm of UV-Visible spectra. The results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution, range from 2-100nm. The FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible bio-molecules or functional groups responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the metal colloidal particles synthesized by the plant extract and the results showed that the synthesized colloidal particles may be surrounded by proteins and metabolites having the functional groups of alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. The results signify that Ageratum conyzoides is a potential medicinal plant for the synthesis of silver colloidal particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Antiviral and Kinesin Eg5 Activities of New Indomethacin Analogues

Najim A. Al-Masoudi, Dawood S. Ali

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 516-536
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/8721

Aim: Synthesis, characterization, anti-HIV, anti-HCV and kinesin activities of new indomethacin analogues have been carried out.

Methodology: Arylated derivatives of indomethacin via the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction using palladium acetate/triphenylphophineor palladium based N-heterocyclic carbene (Pd-NHC) complexe as catalysts were synthesized and characterized by the 1H and 13C and 2D NMR study. Analogously, indomethacin analogues bearing thioureido and amide moieties of various L-amino acid esters were prepared via Kabbani and coupling reactions, respectively.

Results: All the new analogues were evaluated In vitro for their antiviral activity against the replication of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in MT-4 cells using MTT assay. Compounds 28, 31 and 32 were evaluated In vitro for their inhibitory activity against hepatitis virus C (HCV) in the Huh 5-2 replicon system (type 1b, Con1 strain). Additionally, some analogues were screened for their inhibitory activity against the ATPase enzyme and the motor-protein Kinesin Eg5.In conclusion, Compounds 31 and 39 showed anti-HIV activity with IC50 values of >1.81 and > 3.21μM (CC50 of 3.31 and 28.89μM), resulting in selectivity indexs (SI) of 6 and 9, respectively.

Conclusion: Compounds 31 and 39 displayed better anti-HIV activity than the other derivatives (SI = 6 and 9, respectively). Compound 27 showed ATPase inhibition value of 48% at 100 µM concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of New Models in Rheological Behavior Study Sunflower Oil

Ioana Stanciu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 537-545
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/8744

Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil compressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Sunflower oil contains predominantly linoleic (48–7%), oleic (14–40%), palmitic (4–9%) and stearitic (1–7%). In general, viscosity measures the resistance of a liquid to flow. From a molecular point of view, viscosity is an indirect measurement of the internal friction between the molecules that constitute the fluid and which oppose liquid movement. Therefore, viscosity must have significant correlations with structural parameters of the fluid molecules.

The sunflower oil were investigated using a Haake VT 550 Viscotester developing shear rates ranging between 3 and 120 s-1 and measuring viscosities from 104 to 106mPa.s when the HV1 viscosity sensor is used. In this article we presented rheological models to study the behavior of sunflower oil. The constants A, B, and C were determined by Origin 6.0 software by fitting exponential curves obtained from experimental data. The one proposed relationship gives correlation coefficients close to one. For three-dimensional representation of the shear rate by shear stress at different temperatures we used Origin 6.0 software. From the diagram it is observed that at low temperatures sunflower oil has the highest shear stress and therefore dynamic viscosity highest at high temperatures sunflower oil has the lowest shear stresses and therefore dynamic viscosity lowest.


Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Functional Properties of African Wild Antelope (Antilocapra americana) Meat

Ogungbenle Henry Niyi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 546-553
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7404

The study attempts to evaluate the nutritional composition of African wild antelope (Antelocapra americana). The data revealed that antelope meat contained high amount of crude protein (24.76g/100g), fat (5.32g/100g),moisture (8.08g/100g) and ash (4.67g/100g) respectively. Potassium was the most abundant mineral with the value of 292.22mg/100g followed by sodium (261.01mg/100g). Phytate was found to be the highest anti-nutrient with the value of 47.0 mg/g while oxalate was the least with the value of 0.27 mg/g. The sample exhibits water absorption capacity of  360.0%, emulsion capacity (47.36%) and least gelation concentration of 6%w/v. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated amino acid (13.2g/100g) in the sample while cystine was the least abundant amino acid (0.99g/100g protein).