Open Access Short communication

Synthesis and Characterization of 4-Thiobutyl-triphenylphosphonium-pantetheine, a Pantetheine Derivative

Roald A. Lambrechts, Balaji Srinivasan, Edzard M. Geertsema, Gerrit J. Poelarends, Ody C. M. Sibon, Marianne De Villiers

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 676-686
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7335

Pantetheine, a low molecular weight thiol, has been found to ameliorate symptoms in various disease models but specifically in Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN). Pantetheine is usually administered in its disulfide form (i.e. pantethine) since pantethine is commercially available and is reduced to pantetheine in biological systems. The applicability and efficacy of pantethine (therefore also pantetheine) as a clinical therapeutic however is hampered since both forms can be degraded by pantetheinases present in the body. Here, we report the synthesis of a masked form of pantetheine, namely 4-thiobutyltriphenylphosphonium-pantetheine (TBTP-pantetheine), following our hypothesis that this pantetheine-derivative might be more stable in the presence of pantetheinases than pantetheine itself. Higher stability would enhance transport into the cytoplasm where TBTP-pantetheine is metabolized into pantetheine which can subsequently execute its medicinal action. We find that TBTP-pantetheine is stable in aqueous solution, however it was found to be less stable in 10% fetal calf serum (which contains pantetheinases) compared to pantethine, the commercially availabile disulfide of pantetheine. We show that TBTP-pantetheine has improved lipophilicity, but equal passive membrane permeability/diffusion, as compared with pantethine.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Quantum-Chemical Study of the In vitro Cytotoxicity of a Series of (Z)-1-Aryl-3-Arylamino-2-Propen-1-Ones Against Human Tumor DU145 and K562 Cell Lines

Diego I. Pino-Ramírez, Juan S. Gómez-Jeria

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 554-575
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/8691

In this paper we present the results of a formal quantum-chemical analysis of the relationships between the electronic structure and In vitro cytotoxicity activity (measured in a cell-based assay using two different human tumor cell lines derived from human prostate cancer and leukemia) for a series of (Z)-1-aryl-3-arylamino-2-propen-1-ones. We employed a formal method relating biological activities with local atomic reactivity indices developed in our Unit. The electronic structure of all molecules was calculated within Density Functional Theory at the B3LYP/6-31g (d,p) level of theory with full geometry optimization. We have obtained statistically significant results relating the variation of a definite set of local atomic reactivity indices to the variation of toxicity against the DU-145 cell line. No local atomic reactivity indices belonging to the chain joining the phenyl rings appear in the final equation. Therefore it is not possible to elaborate about its role. Phenyl rings seem to play opposite roles regarding electron transfer. The whole process is charge-, orbital- and sterically-controlled. No good results were obtained for the K562 cell line. More experimental information is needed to clarify this last result.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities of Novel Aminoalkylated 2H-benzotriazoles

Bharti Bhardwaj, Subhash C. Jain

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 576-586
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9104

In view of generating new compounds for future drug development, we have synthesized some N-aminoalkylated derivatives of benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole by alkylating benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole in the presence of K2CO3/DMF using 1,6-dibromohexane to obtain the 2-(6-bromohexyl)-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (3) as the one of the major product which was then used as an intermediate to synthesize a new series of compounds 4a-j. All the synthesized compounds were fully characterized on the basis of their detailed spectral studies and were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities In vitro against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermis), four Gram-negative bacteria (Echerichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Staphylococcus typhi and  Klebsiella pneumoniae) and four fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus) strains using Cup plate method.


Open Access Original Research Article

Silica Ammonium Acetate as an Efficient and Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Synthesis of 4H-pyran Derivatives under Ultrasound Irradiation at Ambient Conditions

Abdulkarim M. A. Al-Kadasi, Hassan A. Osman, G. M. Nazeruddin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 587-599
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/5644

A simple, versatile and efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of 4H-pyran derivatives 4a-k via a three-component cyclocondensation of aldehydes, malononitrile and ethyl acetoacetate under heterogeneous conditions using silica supported ammonium acetate as the recyclable catalyst, promoted by ultrasound irradiation. The present method offers several advantages such as the products are obtained in excellent yields and are in a state of high purity, non hazardous reaction conditions as well as short reaction times.


Open Access Original Research Article

Cyclohexane Oxidation: Synthesis of Iron (III)-Amino Acid and Amino Acid Schiff Base Complexes and Their Catalytic Activity Evaluation

S. Merajuddin Ahmed, Ahmed T. Mubarak, M. Mujahid Alam, Halima A. Al-Ahmari

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 600-615
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9185

The amino acids, alanine (Ala) and phenyl alanine (Phe) and their Schiff bases (Ala-Sal), (Phe-Sal) were complexed with iron [III] metal. The complexes (Fe-Ala), (Fe-Phe) and Schiff bases complexes (Fe-Ala-Sal) and (Fe-Phe-Sal) were characterized by the UV, IR, NMR and SEM. The catalytic performance of prepared complexes were investigated by using various reaction conditions, such as temperature, pressure, amount of catalyst, time, oxidant to substrate ratio in order to find out the optimum conditions for the oxidation reaction of cyclohexane. The selective oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol (KA-oil) by various oxidants such as aqueous H2O2, Na2O2, KIO4 and TBHP in presence of acetonitrile and without solvent system was investigated. Also, the amino acid Schiff base iron complexes were supported on zeolite “Y” and intercalated on montmorillonite clay to enhance their catalytic activity. The supported catalysts were also characterized by IR and Powder X-Ray diffraction XRD studies before their application to cyclohexane oxidation. The conversion of cyclohexane was up to 13% with the selectivity of cyclohexanone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Se-doped ZnO Nanoparticles by Electrochemical Method: Photodegradation Kinetics of Indigo Carmine Dye and Study of Antimicrobial, Antimitotic Activities of Se-doped ZnO Nanoparticles

Sowbhagya ., Sannaiah Ananda

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 616-637
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/8748

In the past few decades selenium nanoparticles have received a considerable importance because of its effective biological applications. Therefore, nano-structured Se-doped ZnO photocatalyst has been synthesized by electrochemical method, which is a simple and an inexpensive method. The characterization techniques included are UV-Visible spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques. From UV-Vis spectroscopy and by using Tauc plot the band gap energy of Se-doped ZnO nanoparticles is calculated and is found to be 2.6eV. The IR spectra showed the peak at 427 cm-1 for ZnO bonds and peaks at 518cm-1, 612cm-1, 727cm-1 and 1373cm-1 correspond to the presence of Se-ZnO bending and stretching vibrations. From the XRD data and with the help of Williamson-Hall plot the crystalline size is calculated and it is found to be ~25.5 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized Se-doped ZnO nanoparticles was investigated by the kinetics of degradation of Indigo carmine dye. The degradation efficiency of Se-doped ZnO was found to be ~96%. The antimicrobial and antimitotic activities were evaluated for the synthesized ZnO and Se-doped ZnO nanoparticles against the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosorption of Synthetic Dyes on Spruce Wood Shavings from Binary Solutions: A Comparison of Equilibrium Models

Pavel Janoš

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 638-656
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9208

Aims: To compare various models describing the sorption of synthetic dyes in multicomponent systems. For selected models, their predictive ability (an ability to predict the sorption behavior in muticomponent systems from the model parameters obtained in the single-component systems) was examined.

Place and Duration of Study: University of J. E. Purkyne in Ústínad Labem, Faculty of the Environment, Czech Republic, January 2012 to June 2013.

Methodology: Equilibrium sorption experiments were performed in a batch arrangement, the dye concentrations were determined by spectrophotometry and HPLC, and the experimental data were evaluated by the method of non-linear regression.

Results: The single-component equilibrium data was evaluated successfully with the three-parameter isotherm equations, such as the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. To describe the experimental dependencies for multicomponent systems, various isotherms can be used (derived mostly from the well-known single-component isotherms), but not all of them are capable to predict the dye sorption in muticomponent systems from the model parameters obtained in the single-component system. To compare the predictive ability of various models, an Average Relative Deviation (ARD) and Root Mean Squared Deviation (RMSD) were used as estimators.

Conclusions: Untreated wood shavings form Picea abies are applicable as a low-cost non-conventional sorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes form aqueous solutions. The sorption of Egacid Orange (Acid Orange 7), Egacid Yellow (Acid Yellow 11) and Acid Red 88 as representatives of anionic azodyes with strongly acidic sulfonic group was studied in a single-component system, as well as in binary systems. Various isotherm equations were used to fit the equilibrium experimental data in both systems. Among the examined models, the Toth multicomponent isotherm exhibited quite good prediction ability, whereas the predictions based on a widely used competitive Langmuir model were rather poor.


Open Access Original Research Article

Rhodium (I) Complexes of Quinoline Functionalised Heterocyclic Carbene Ligands

Aminu Ahmed, Abdullahi Mustapha

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 664-675
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9411

In this paper, two types of quinoline functionalized rhodium complexes were synthesized by stirring imidazolium salts with silver oxide to obtain silver carbenes. According to the method, the corresponding non chelated rhodium complexes were access by transmetallation of silver carbenes. Reaction of the non chelated rhodium complexes gave the chelated analogue that was insoluble in most solvents. All the non chelated complexes were structurally characterized by 1H NMR, 13 NMR, microanalysis and X-ray crystallography. The crystal geometry of the complexes adopted square planar structures. All the rhodium complexes were stable enough in air and with moisture.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics of Divalent Metals (Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+) Adsorption onto a Modified Brick

O. Allahdin, M. Wartel, J. Mabingui, A. Boughriet

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 687-705
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9275

Brick which originated from Bangui Region (in Central African Republic), was pre-activated with HCl at 90°C and coated with ferrihydrite. This material was used in the present work as an adsorbent mainly for the removal of metallic cations (Me2+ = Cd2+; Cu2+; Pb2+; Zn2+) from aqueous solutions due to their bad effect on the environment. Experimental results were compared to those obtained for other divalent cations (Ca2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Sr2+). Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to describe adsorptions isotherms, and Langmuir model was found to provide the best fitting. Langmuir adsorption capacities (Qmax) of these ions onto ferrihydrite-coated brick increased in the following order: Cu > Zn >Pb>Ca> Cd >Mg. Kinetic studies revealed that experimental data were better fitted by the pseudo second-order rate equation than the pseudo first-order rate one. Thermodynamic analyses indicated that the adsorption kinetics process was endothermic. Because of acid/hydrolysis characteristics of metallic cations, the kinetic constant, k2, was found to be affected by H+ and OH- (i.e., solution pH) as potential-determining ions by regulating proportions of negative and positive charges at the brick surface. The adsorption capacity (Qe) was determined from kinetic data and the adsorption affinity of the studied eight elements onto ≡S-OH sites in modified brick had the following order: Pb> Cu > Cd ≈ Mn ≈ Zn > Mg >Ca> Sr. These Qevalues were found to be instead related to the surface binding constant, K(≡SOMe), relative to the equilibrium: S-OH) + Me2+ ↔ ( S-O)Me+ + H+), suggesting the implication of hydroxyl groups from brick metakaolinite in addition to –OH and/or –ONa functions mainly present in ferrihydrite deposits.


Open Access Review Article

Processing of Electronic Glass Scrap Recycling

Burcu Ertuğ

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 657-663
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/8939

Among the diverse types of waste, glass is one of the most adequate recycling materials because it can be revived and recycled completely and hardly decomposes. The glass recycle process basically involves collecting, sorting, then crushing and grinding after which glass cullet is produced as the secondary raw material. Removing of the contaminants from the glass cullet, and then melting are the next steps. LCD glass, PCBs and CRT are recycled to fabricate new products. In this study, recent developments in the recycling of glass, are discussed in terms of glass production processes. It was concluded that CRT, LCD and PCBs are popular resources of glass recycling and they can be used in different applications.