Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Trace-metals in Sediments and Plants on Canal of Jandiá and Igarape of Fortaleza in Macapá-AP-Brazil

Karoline de N. R. dos Santos, Cleydson Breno R. Santos, Adriana M. Ferreira, Francinaldo S. Braga, Cleison C. Lobato, Alexandro C. Florentino, José Carlos T. Carvalho, Roberto M. Bezerra

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 706-714
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10589

Aims: Determine the concentration of trace-metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and Zn) in sediments and plant Cenchrus echinatus L. species on Canal of Jandiá and Igarape of Fortaleza in the municipality of Macapa, Amapa, Brazil.

Study Design: The sediment samples were collected (0.3kg) at 05 points on Canal of Jandiá and Igarape of Fortaleza, totaling 10 sampling points, where each point contained a distance of 200m between them, which was determined with the aid of equipment Garmin GPS model. The samples of plants of the Cenchrus echinatus L. species (0.2kg) were used to determine the concentration of metals and submitted to calcination and filtration process, and analyzes carried out in atomic absorption spectrophotometer model 6300 Shimadzu AAS.

Place and Duration of Study/Methodology: The study and analyses were carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences and Health, in Laboratory of Atomic Absorption and Bioprospecting (LAAB), Laboratory of General and Analytical Chemistry of Federal University of Amapá and Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Embrapa) between January to October of 2011.

Results: The statistical significance was calculated using a two-tailed Student t test and Mann-Whitney U test with 95% confidence interval. In Igarape of Fortaleza, the values ​​of trace-metals in sediments for K ranged from 0.2mg/L to 6.1mg/L, Ca from 5.5mg/L to 18.1mg/L, Mg from 1.4mg/L to 1.6mg/L, Pb from 0.13mg/L to 4.2 mg/L and Zn from 1.3mg/L to 2.1mg/L. In the Canal of Jandiá, measured values of Na ranged from 0.0 to 9.4mg/L, Ca from 5.3mg/L to 18.4mg/L, Pb from 0.4mg/L to 1.6mg/L and Zn from 1.6mg/L to 2.7mg/L. Trace-metals not detected were Na, in Igarape of Fortaleza, and K, in the Canal of Jandiá. The results obtained in the determination of trace-metals (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Pb and Zn) in plants of the Cenchrus echinatus L. species in the Canal of Jandiá, showed that the measured values of Na ranged from 0.0 to 9.4mg/L, Ca from 5.9mg/L to 1.1mg/L, Pb from 0.4mg/L to 1.6mg/L and Zn from 0.2mg/L to 2.07mg/L. In Igarape of Fortaleza, the trace-metal of Ca ranged from 8.07mg/L to 26.2mg/L, Mg from 1.3mg/L to 1.4mg/L, Pb from 0.06mg/L to 0.1mg/L and Zn from 0.4mg/L to 0.5mg/L. Trace-metals not detected were Na, in Igarape of Fortaleza and Mg and in the Canal of Jandiá. The ion K had no variation in measurements in Igarape of Fortaleza.

Conclusion: The metals Pb and Zn exceeded the reference values of CONAMA nº344/2004 resolution, which undertake plants and sediments. For the other elements the concentrations were found within recommended limit. However, they require special attentions since the concentration of the metals at some points are close recommended limits.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Distribution of Detergent Waste in the Environment and the Removal by Using Photocatalytic Degradation and Coagulation Methods

Eko Sugiharto, Adhitasari Suratman, Taufik Abdillah Natsir, Endang Tri Wahyuni

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 715-725
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9583

Aims: This study is aimed to determine the distribution of detergent contamination in the Code River and the ability to remove it from laundry wastewater samples by using photocatalytic degradation and coagulation methods.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was located at the Code River close to Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, and the research was conducted for 6 months (June-November 2013).

Methodology: The water samples used in this study consist of waste water (produced from laundry activities) and river water (before and after the outlet of laundry waste disposal). Analysis of anionic surfactant and phosphate were carried out by UV/visible spectrophotometric methods using methylene blue and ammonium molybdate, respectively as complexing agents. The surfactant removal was studied using photocatalytic degradation and that of phosphate by coagulation methods. The photocataltyic reaction was carried out in batch technique by irradiating the artificial waste in the presence of TiO2 powder as photocatalyst with UV lamp. The coagulation was conducted by batch technique using 3 types of coagulants, that are alum (Al3+), ferroin (Fe3+), and calcium (Ca2+), in which the influence of reaction time was studied.

Results: The results indicate that the river water which is located at the points before and after the disposal point of the laundry waste water contain anionic surfactant and phosphate.The content of the anionic surfactant (198 mg/L) and phosphate (52 mg/L) in the laundry waste water (taken directly from the laundry process) are found to be much higher than the quality standard level (0.2 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L for surfactant and phosphate respectively). Therefore, it is clear that such waste water has to be treated before being disposed. The present study shows that the waste water treatment by photodegradation method catalyzed by TiO2 can decrease the surfactant concentration effectively, and the effectiveness is controlled by TiO2 dose and reaction time. The maximum removal of surfactant (90%) from 50 ml of the waste water can be obtained by using 30 mg of TiO2 for 24 h of reaction time. By using coagulation process, the concentration of phosphate in the waste water can be decreased as much as 10-70%, depending on the type of coagulants. The most active coagulant is Fe3+ followed by Al3+ and Ca2+ due to their affinity in poly nuclear formation.

Conclusion: The water streams in the Code River are found to be contaminated by surfactant and phosphate in low to medium level. The removal of the surfactant in the laundry waste water was successfully carried out by photodegradation method catalyzed by TiO2, while the phosphate concentration can be decreased by coagulation method.  

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Design of OTEC Power Plant with Concurrent Production of Desalinated Water – A Case Study

C. M. Narayanan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 726-735
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10306

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants offer a green source of renewable energy. Since India is a tropical country and a peninsula, the prospects of  OTEC power generation are extremely bright in India. Among the three modes of operation (open cycle, closed cycle and hybrid cycle) of OTEC system, the hybrid mode is most promising. However, one of the chief technical obstacles in OTEC  power plant design is that since the temperature difference driving force available is of the order of 10-15ºC only, the size of the heat exchanger (evaporator / condenser) required becomes exorbitantly large. The use of variable area design, developed by the author and his co-workers, has been recommended in this connection. Such a design provides substantial increase in heat transfer coefficient (350 to 450% increase) with insignificant increase in the associated pressure drop penalty (118 to 120% increase). The required size of  the heat exchangers  thus gets reduced tremendously, while the operating cost does not increase materially, thereby making design and operation of OTEC power plants economical and cost- effective. The performance characteristics of such heat exchangers (Variable Area Heat Exchangers or VAEs) are discussed in detail in this paper. Further, in the hybrid mode of operation of OTEC  system, low pressure steam is produced  by the flash evaporation of sea water and this steam is used as heating fluid in the evaporator (of variable area design) to evaporate the working fluid (ammonia, freon). The condensate from this exchanger thus forms desalinated water, which constitutes a valuable by-product of the process. Apart from generating clean electric power around the clock (without consuming any valuable raw material), this power plant thus produces several gallons of desalinated water also per day.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of the Optical Conductivity, Extinction Coefficient and Dielectric Function of CdO by Sucessive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) Techniques

Adrian Ohwofosirai, Matthew D. Femi, Nwokike A. Ngozika, Toluchi O. Joseph, R. U. Osuji, B. A. Ezekoye

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 736-744
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/6958

Aims: The research is to study the Optical Conductivity, Extinction Coefficient and Dielectric function using deposited CdO films

Place and Duration of Study: The research place is at the Material Science and Nanotechnology Unit, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria Nsukka, between of August 2012 to June 2013.

Methodology: The approach used in the deposition of CdO is the Solution Method, known as the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction techniques (SILAR) Technique and the UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy was used for film characterization.

Results: The deposited CdO thin film has a low and high transmittance in the UV and visible region respectively. The band gap of the deposited CdO decreases with an increase in No. of cycles films and ranges from 1.45eV – 2.35eV, this was attributed to the increase in the thickness of films. Also studied is the variation of the film optical conductivity with the band gap, which was observed to decrease with an increase in band gap. Lastly, the relationship between the film band gap and the dielectric function of the materials was consider, the dielectric constant varies exponentially with the band gap and also increases with the number of cycles (film thickness).

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of New Ionic Plastic Crystals in NR4BBu4 (R = Me, Et, Pr, Bu, Pen)

Tomoyuki Hayasaki, Satoru Hirakawa, Hisashi Honda

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 745-758
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10339

In order to investigate new ionic plastic crystals, differential-scanning-calorimetry (DSC), nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR), and electrical conductivity measurements were carried out in NR4BBu4 (R = Me, Et, Pr, Bu, Pen) salts. DSC measurements showed a low entropy change of 29.1 J K-1 mol-1 at a melting point and large values of 35.7 and 17.8J K-1 mol-1 at phase transitions in NEt4BBu4 crystals. In contrast, the other compounds of NR4BBu4 (R = Me, Pr, Bu, Pen) showed large entropy changes at each melting point. On the basis of solid-state 1H and 13C NMR spectra results, tumbling motions were detected in the NMe4BBu4 and NEt4BBu4 crystals. Isotropic reorientation motions of partial ions were observed in the NPr4BBu4 crystals. Although NR4BBu4 (R = Me, Et, Pr) have no plastic phases, low activation energies of ion transfer were recorded in these salts. These results suggest that the tumbling motions can perform the resemble effect as isotropic reorientation in plastic crystals.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability and Antimicrobial Activity of Transition Metal (II) Complexes with SNO and ONO Functionalized Ligand: A Computational Study

Fakhr M. Abu-Awwad, Nabil M. El-Halabi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 759-773
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10427

In this work, the structural, surface potential, and antimicrobial aspects of a set of recently synthesized and published complexes of five transition metals(II) are investigated using the semiempirical PM6 and B3LYP/6-31G* methods. The complexes ML2 [M = Ni, Cu, and Zn] are mainly composed of 2-thiophenecarbaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone containing a trifunctional SNO-donor system. Experimentally, the complexes were synthesized and characterized using their conductivity, IR, and partially using 1H NMR, and MS spectra, where they show similar properties to those in their analogous NNO functionalized ligand and ONO donor ligand. The attained wavefunction for each of the complexes was subsequently used to compute six molecular descriptors which were then investigated in light of their reported antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The findings are further explored to elucidate the impact of the structural features on the complex biological activity. It is concluded that the type of transition metal is significantly impacting the antimicrobial activity of the complex, where the structural features of Mn(II) counterpart complexes were computationally inspected and their untested biological activities was predicted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thieno [2, 3-d] Pyrimidine-4-Ones. Part 4.* Directions of Reactions of the 2-Oxo-, -Thioxo-5, 6-Dimethyl-3, 4-Dihydrothieno [2, 3-d] Pyrimidine-4-Ones with Electrophilic Reagents

I. S. Ortikov, B. Zh. Elmuradov, Kh. M. Shakhidoyatov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 774-786
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10495

Interaction of 5,6-dimethyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-one (1), -thione(2) with alkylation agents (methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, n-butyl iodides, allylbromide, benzyl chloride) in different conditions (in the presence of catalyst and/or without catalyst) were investigated. It was shown that methyl group in position 5 under action of nitrating mixture (NM) takes place aromatic ipso-substitution reaction or its oxidation up to corresponding carboxylic acid. Directions of reactions depend on nature of substituent in position N-3. It is revealed, that at absence of the substituent in position 3 (compounds 1, 2, 11) the electrophilic ipso-substitution of methyl group by nitro group with formation of 5-nitroderivatives took place. It is found, that at interaction of compounds 3, 19 with NM instead of substitution of methyl groups at C-5 go in an expected direction, i.e. there are oxidation of methyl groups.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Similarity Searching Method Based on Adaptive IR Technique

Mohammed Salem Binwahlan, Naomie Salim

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 787-797
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10175

An age-old question remains as an open research problem in the field of chemoinformatics, which is how much could the proposed approach enhance the effectiveness of lead-discovery programmes? Answering that question is a target of any new virtual screening approach. The current research tries to contribute in this direction by improving the performance of molecular similarity searching process. In this paper, Okapi similarity measure, which is effective and widely used in text retrieval, is adapted to perform the role of molecular similarity measure in 2D fingerprints. The adapted similarity measure calculates the molecular similarity between a reference structure and a database structure. The experimental results showed that the proposed method performs well compared to Tanimoto coefficient.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water from Nasarawa State, Middle Belt, Nigeria

B. W. Tukura, M. I. G Ayinya, I. G. Ibrahim, E. U. Onche

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 798-812
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10553

Aim: To assess contamination of borehole water by heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn).

Study Design: Water samples collected from fifty two boreholes in twelve Local Government Areas (L.G.A) of Nasarawa State were analyzed for the heavy metal concentrations.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were collected from Akwanga, Awe, Doma, Garaku, Karu, Keana, Keffi, Lafia, Nasarawa, Nasarawa Eggon, Toto, and Wamba, during the dry season. 

Methodology: The water samples were prepared according to standard methods. Heavy metal levels in the samples were quantitatively determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS).

Results: The highest concentrations of Zn (1.81±1.19 mg/l) and Fe (0.89±1.73 mg/l) were  recorded at Keana, while their lowest levels were observed at Lafia. Pb ranged from 0.01±0.00 to 0.04±0.05 mg/l in the areas. The highest Cu (0.32±0.51 mg/l) and Ni (0.07±0.06 mg/l) contents were obtained at Doma. Nasarawa recorded the highest concentration of Mn (0.08±0.04 mg/l) and the lowest at Lafia (0.01 ± 0.00 mg/l). Water Cr contents was highest at Keana (0.24±0.32 mg/l) and lowest at Lafia  and Akwanga. Ni levels were low. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that heavy metal concentrations were not significantly different (P < .05), except for Zn. Fe levels (0.70 mg/l) at Kagbu Error (N/Eggon), Offu and Ugya (0.75 mg/l) at Toto, where higher than the SON and WHO acceptable limits for drinking water, except at Idadu, where the value (0.35 mg/l) was within the WHO acceptable limit. Concentrations of Pb in borehole water from Tide, Nidan, and Towship (Akwanga), Arusu (0.014 mg/l) in Garaku and Keana were above the WHO threshold value for drinking water. Cr levels at Idadu (0.70 mg/l) in Doma, Angbragba (0.7 mg/l) and Owene (0.21 mg/l) at Keana, and Main market (0.07 mg/l), were also above the SON and WHO acceptable limits. Concentrations of Cu at Galle South (1.03 mg/l) in N/Eggon and Yashi Madaki (1.05 mg/l) in Wamba were higher than the SON standard but within the acceptable WHO (2.0 mg/l) standard.

Conclusion: Boreholes water was not contaminated by Mn, Zn, and Ni. Pb, Fe, Cu, and Cr levels in water were above SON and WHO. Metal levels above the standards might be attributed to surface contamination originating from anthropogenic and geological sources. Continuous monitoring of the heavy metal levels in water from the boreholes is recommended.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring and Evalution of Exotherms as Trouble-Shooting Processes in Polyurethane Foam Manufacture

M. B. Dalen, A. Q. Ibrahim, H. M. Adamu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 813-827
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11361

Monitoring and evalution of exotherms as temperature rises were investigated using various foam formulations from two types of polyols with variations in blow indices as volume of water added.  It was observed that exotherms increase linearly with blow index.  The results also showed that density variations are in inverse relationship with the exotherms, foam heights and compression sets. Furthermore, it was similarly observed that as the blow index increases, ΔT1 and ΔT2 increase for both conventional (CPO) and polymer (PPO) polyols far above the acceptable temperature range of 22-26ºC for foam manufacture with consequences on physical properties.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Heat and Mass Transfer Through a Porous Media of MHD Flow of Nanofluids with Thermal Radiation, Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Eshetu Haile, B. Shankar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 828-846
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11082

The flow problem presented in the paper is a study on boundary layer flow of a nanofluid through a porous medium subjected to a magnetic field, thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and chemical reaction effects. The effects of porosity, thermal radiation, magnetic field, viscous dissipation and chemical reaction to the flow field were thoroughly explained for various values of the governing parameters. Copper (Cu) and Alumina ( ) water nanofluids were considered. The partial differential equations appearing in the governing equations of the problem were transformed into a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with the help of similarity transformations. The transformed equations were solved numerically by the Keller Box method. For selected values of the parameters involved in the governing equations like nanofluid volume fraction , the porous medium parameter , magnetic parameter , Eckert number  Schmidt number , Soret number  thermal radiative parameter  and chemical reaction parameter , numerical results of velocity field, temperature distribution, concentration, Skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number  and Sherwood number were obtained. The results were analysed and discussed with the help of graphs and tables. Comparisons with previously published works were performed and they are found in excellent agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.1M H2SO4 Solution by Anacardium occidentale Gum

David E. Arthur, Adebiyi Adedayo, Gerald Igelige, Edwin Ogwuche

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 847-854
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/9499

The corrosion inhibition of mild steel is of technological importance due to the increase of industrial requirements. This study reports the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic solution of 0.1 M H2SO4 using Anarcadium occidentale gum, also known as Cashew gum by way of gravimetric measurements. It was shown that the presence of cashew gum inhibited the corrosion of mild steel in the test solution and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in concentration of the gum, hence it’s depended on the concentration of the plant extract as well as on the time of exposure of the mild steel samples in H2SO4 solutions containing the extract. The experimental data complied with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The results obtained authenticate that cashew gum is a good corrosion inhibitor and the adsorption mechanism is physisorption.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Contents in Soils and Some Crops Irrigated Along the Bindare Stream Zaria- Kaduna State, Nigeria

M. A. Funtua, E. B. Agbaji, A. A. Pam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 855-864
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11858

Heavy metal contents of some crops and farm soil irrigated along the Bindare stream in Chikaji Zaria were investigated. The results of the analysis indicate that the crops contained substantial amount of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Zn and Fe) compared to similar crops irrigated   far distance from the stream. The concentration of the heavy metals (Zn, Cr and Fe) in the crops and the farm soil were found to be below the FAO/WHO safe limit, while the concentration of Pb was higher than the FAO/WHO safe limit. This suggest that the crops and the farm soil along the stream were contaminated by these heavy metals as the stream receives industrial waste discharges. Contamination factors and Geo-accumulation index for Pb, Cr, Zn and Fe in the areas under investigation were carried out. The results revealed that the soils are currently polluted with Pb and Zn.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assaying Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 1-phenyl-3-naphthoic acid Derivatives

R. P. Mahashabde, N. S. Kadam, S. S. Deo, F. Inam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 865-873
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7460

Laboratory synthesized 1-phenyl naphthoic acid systems (substituted naphthalenes or lignans) were evaluated for their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. All the phenyl  naphthoic acids showed significant to moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl) and FeCl3 (ferric chloride) assay.

All the lignan compounds exhibited significant to moderate antimicrobial and antifungal activity except one of the compounds which showed no toxicity to the fungal species.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Substituent Types and Positions on Skeleton of Myrcane-Type Monoterpenoids using Generalized Regression Neural Network

Taye T. Alawode, Kehinde O. Alawode

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 890-900
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11441

Aim: To explore the ability of GRNN as a tool of structural elucidation in predicting the substituent types on myrcane, one of the representative skeletons of monoterpenoids.

Methodology: Generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was used in the study. Carbon-13 (13C) NMR chemical shift values of skeletons of 104 myrcane monoterpenoids were used as the input data used for the network. Each substituent type on the skeleton of the different compounds were coded and used as the output data for the network. These data were used to train the network while the spread constant of the GRNN was varied.  After training, the network was simulated using 15 test compounds.

Results: GRNN at a spread constant of 1.0 gave the best result. The network had between 80 to 90% recognition rates in 14 of the 15 test compounds. The network could not predict correctly the substitution pattern on ‘compound 11’ as all the positions was predicted to be unsubstituted. This could be due to the non-existence of precise rules for the compound.

Conclusion: GRNN, one of the architectures of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), could be a powerful aid in the structural elucidation of organic compounds.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Unsteady MHD Heat and Mass Transfer Flow over Stretching Sheet in Porous Medium with Variable Properties Considering Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction

D. Hunegnaw, N. Kishan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 901-917
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11972

Unsteady magneto hydrodynamic heat and mass transfer flow of viscous, incompressible fluid flow over a stretching sheet embedded in a porous medium with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity have been analyzed, by taking into account viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. The governing coupled non-linear partial differential equations are reduced to similarity boundary layer equations using suitable transformation and then solved using the Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure along with shooting technique. The effects of various flow parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are analyzed and presented graphically. Skin-friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are derived, discussed numerically and their numerical values for various values of physical parameter are presented through tables. It is noted that the skin-friction coefficient –  and temperature gradient  increase with the increase of variable viscosity as well as velocity suction parameter but the Sherwood number ) decreases. The effect of Eckert number and Prandtl number increases the values of – ) and mass transfer rate ) but decrease the temperature gradient .

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling of Advanced Photo Oxidation of Alizarin Red-S Dye Using Tio2 as Photo Catalyst

Tariq H. Talib, Murad A. AlDamen, Ramzie R. Alani

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 918-933
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/7662

The objective of this study was to investigate the experimental study and theoretical study of advanced photo oxidation using TiO2 as photo catalyst and to compare between these two studies. This work contains two parts, the first part was removing efficiency of an industrially important dye Alizarin Red-S (ARS) from aqueous media using TiO2 anatase as photo catalyst was studied in various conditions, such as initial concentration, temperature, pH, photo catalyst dosage.

The second part deals with the theoretical study of the TiO2 surface and the pollutant substance (ARS) using the program (Spartan '08 V1.2.0). we used two kinds of calculations, the first was the Equilibrium Geometry optimization at ground state  by Density Functional Theory/B3LYP method and Semi-empirical/PM3 method to predict the most stable geometrical formula for TiO2 anatase (001),(101) and (ARS) pollutant in different medium (neutral, acidic, basic). The program showed that the method DFT/B3LYP give the best results compared with DFT/PM3 and that the basic medium was  better than acidic and neutral medium which means that the highest rate of (ARS) degradation  was in basic medium. The second calculation was the energy geometry at ground state by density functional theory/EDF2 method to calculate standard thermodynamic quantities for (ARS) pollutant and TiO2 anatase (001), (101) surface that showed the highest stability for them in the basic medium.

The results from theoretical study agreed with the results obtained in the experimental study. Results from the experimental study showed Thermodynamic properties was calculated for the photo degradation of (ARS) as (ΔH , ΔG , ΔS ) which is showed an exothermic heterogeneous reaction with pseudo first order reaction and optimum parameters for removal of this dye from aqueous medium were (0.16 g/l, 20ppm, temp.30ºc, pH9). Theoretical study DFT/B3LYP method showed better results than DFT/PM3 to predict the most stable geometrical formula, and TiO2 anatase (001) surface was more active than TiO2 anatase (101) surface.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Contamination of Estuary Water of Ship Breaking Activities in Sitakund Region, Bangladesh

A. R. M. Towfiqul Islam, Masum A. Patwary, M. Saidul Islam, Nourin Akter, M. A. Rakib, M. K. Roy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 934-951
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/12364

The present study aimed to investigate hydrogeochemistry and its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to determine the contamination of estuary water of ship breaking activities in Sitakunda region, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study was carried out by in-situ field measurement of physical parameters while chemical parameters were followed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) methods of laboratory analyses of 12 estuary water samples. The result shows that the PH value was average 7.08 indicated neutral water while Eh, EC, TDS and TH value was average -24.65 mv, 8586.5 μS/cm, 5495.36 μS/cm  and 432.41 mg/l respectively, indicated that the estuary water is not safe and suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes. Inferential statistical results were depicted that a strong positive correlation (ρ) between the parameters such as EC, TDS, TH, Ca2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, Br2-, SO42-, PO42-, NO3-  while negative correlation (ρ) were existed between Mg2+ and HCO3-. According to most abundance of major cations were Na+>Ca2+>Mg2+>K+ whereas major anions were Cl->SO42->HCO3->Br->NO3->PO4-. The concentration of cations and anions in the study area exceeded drinking standards according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Directorate of Environment (DOE), Bangladesh. Irrigation quality index (SAR and PI) indicated that the quality of water is not suitable for irrigation. The origin of solutes in estuary water was influenced by chloride dissolution, although weathering of silicate and cation exchange also added to the water chemistry. This is not conclusive but it may be suggested that the sampled water is not ionically balanced and is highly contaminated due to ship breaking activities.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Phenolic Extract of Gnetum africana on Copper in 1.0 mol/dm3 Ammonium Hydroxide

A. O. Aliyu, Ebere Onyedikachi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 952-962
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11661

Corrosion Inhibition of phenolic extract of Gnetum africana on copper in 1.0 mol/dm3 ammonium hydroxide has been studied using gravimetric (weight-loss) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. Inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration, while corrosion rate decreases with increment of Gnetum africana extract concentration. The inhibition was chemisorptions in nature and the absorption the inhibitor on copper surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Potentiodynamic polarization suggests that Gnetum africana extract acts as mixed type inhibitor, attending a maximum Inhibition efficiency of 84.21 % as against weight-loss method with 87.83 %.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Speciation of Some Trace Metals in Floodplain Soil of Eke-Mgbom, Afikpo, Nigeria

L. O. Ajala, V. I. Onwukeme, M. N. Mgbemena

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 963-974
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11787

Floodplain soil sediment at Eke-Mgbom, Afikpo, Nigeria, was sampled and subjected to chemical fractionation to reveal the geochemical forms in which some trace metals existed. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of these metals to receptor organisms. The speciation of iron, manganese, copper, zinc, nickel, lead, cadmium and chromium were estimated by the speciation method. The geochemical phases in which the metals partitioned followed the order: Oxidizable >> Exchangeable >> Carbonate > Residual > Reducible. This is an indication that most metals accumulated in humic matter. Percentage bioavailability ranged from 17.7%(Cr) to 52.6%(Cd) with an average value of 34.03%. Other trace metals, apart from copper and cadmium were undersaturated with respect to their availabilities to biota. Proper cleaning methods such as phytoremediation were suggested in order to minimize or keep these trace metals in stable forms in this rural agricultural soil.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Quality and Plankton Density of Water in Duck-Fish Production Systems

J. C. Nnaji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 975-982
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11604

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of duck manure and spilled duck feed on water quality and production of Oreochromis niloticus in an integrated system with local duck breeds. Fish with an average body weight of 20.17±1.28g, were stocked into experimental ponds (area 72m2 each) at a stocking density of 5 fish/m2 in duplicate. Treatment 1 (T1) was integrated with 12 Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) while Treatment 2 (T2) was integrated with 12 Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Treatment 3 (T3) was used as control, without integration. Fish in T3 was fed compounded feed of 30% crude protein content three times a day while those in T1 and T2 fed on duck manure and spilled duck feed (15% crude protein content). Water quality parameters of the fish ponds, growth parameters of fish and ducks were monitored. After a 12-week period, mean weight gain of fish were 140.68, 122.11 and 157.19g in T1, T2 and T3 respectively while percentage survival was highest in T3 and lowest in T2. The levels of physico-chemical parameters were generally favourable for fish production and dissolved oxygen (DO) was higher in the integrated treatments probably due to duck activity in the ponds. Plankton analyses shows that duck manure engenders the growth of plankton and this favours the growth of plankton-feeding fish species like O. niloticus. Mallard ducks are recommended for the duck-fish system since they performed better than Muscovy ducks both in survivability and in ability to stimulate physico-chemical and biological processes that engender fish growth.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Synthesis of Nanopolymer Composite with Electroless Coated Reinforcement

Elansezhian Rasu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 983-991
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/12703

In this paper synthesis and characterization of a new hybrid polymer composites reinforced with electroless nickel coated glass fiber with the addition of 0.5 % of nano iron oxide as filler is reported. Nano Iron oxide is introduced into the matrix as fillers at the minimum concentration and its influence on the mechanical and wear behavior are studied. The nano additive added to play a major role in strengthening the composite. To further enhance the strength and wear resistance, polyvinyl ester matrices reinforced with electroless Ni-P coated glass fiber reinforcement is synthesized. The glass fiber reinforcement is coated for the first time into electroless Ni-P successfully after carrying out many trials. The surface morphology is examined by means of SEM. The experimental result shows that after coating the reinforcement with electroless Ni-P, the ultimate tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength and wear resistance is improved by 17.90%, 9%, 12.98%, 33% and 4.58% respectively. After adding nano iron oxide as filler material at 0.5 weight percentage concentration of Ni-P coated glass fiber reinforced PMC, the properties such as ultimate tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength and wear resistance is improved by 43.54%, 23.9%, 23.93%, 34% and 19.25% respectively.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Copper by Raw Pinecone

A. O. Adeyemo, K. O. Adebowale, B. I. Olu-Owolabi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 992-1000
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/11115

This work was carried out in order to study the possibility of using pinecones as inexpensive sorbent material for the removal of copper ions in solution. The experiment was carried out in the Department of Chemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to determine the optimum conditions for adsorption of copper ions on pinecone. 20mL of the aqueous metal ion solution was agitated with 1g of the adsorbent and different parameters varied. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to analyse the experimental data. Equilibrium data fitted well the Langmuir model (R2=0.988). The monolayer adsorption capacity of Cu2+ was found to be 38.46mg/g. The Lagergren’s pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models were selected to study the adsorption process. Kinetic data was found to show very good fit with the pseudo second order kinetic model (R2 = 1). This shows that the adsorption of copper can be described by the pseudo second order equation, showing that the adsorption process is chemisorption between the metal ions and pinecone. The thermodynamic parameters ∆G, ∆H and ∆S were calculated for predicting the nature of adsorption. The negative value of the calculated Gibbs free energy value obtained for the sorption of Cu2+ on raw pinecone shows the adsorption to be spontaneous and feasible.

The results show that pinecone can be used as a low-cost and effective adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, NMR, and Cyclic Voltammetric Study of Some Novel 3,5-Disubstituted 1H-1,2,4-Triazoles Containing Hetaryl Fragments

Yaseen A. Al-Soud, Ziad Moussa, Ali F. Al-Ghamdi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1001-1013
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/12036

The synthesis of the title compounds 5a-c has been accomplished by a Suzuki cross coupling reaction between arylbromide 3 and 5-Indole boronic acid to furnished precursor 4, which was used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of the preceding targets. Thus, treatment of 4 with variously-substituted arylsulfonyl chlorides, the sulfonate derivatives 5a-c were obtained in good yields and high purity. The structures of 5a-c were characterized by 1H, 13C NMR, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy techniques. Further, the electrochemical behavior of compound 5c has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry using Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer at pH 3, pH 7 and pH 9, acetate buffer pH 3, and Phosphate buffer pH 3.  A broad anodic cyclic voltammetric wave at Eap= 640 mV was observed.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Tribological Aspects of Thermally Sprayed Red Mud-Fly Ash and Red Mud-Al Coatings on Mild Steel

Harekrushna Sutar, Subash Chandra Mishra, Santosh Kumar Sahoo, Himanshu Sekhar Maharana, Ananta Prasad Chakraverty

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1014-1031
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/12691

The present research work explains the dry sliding wear characteristics of thermally sprayed red mud and its composite coatings. Composite of red mud, fly ash and aluminium are plasma sprayed at 6, 9, 12 and 15 kW operating power levels. The coatings were experimented to study the tribological behaviour like dry sliding wear behaviour, XRD phase transformation, coating thickness, coating morphology, wear morphology, wear mechanism and co-efficient of friction. 10% Fly ash and 5% aluminium powder were mixed separately by weight with pure red mud and sliding wear test was conducted using pin on disc wear test machine. The test was performed with track diameter of 100 mm and at sliding speed of 100 rpm (0.523 m/s) at a normal load of 20 N. Coating property was discriminated by variation of sliding time length. Operating power was found to be remarkable variable for wear rate, coating thickness, coating morphology and friction coefficient. Significant increase in wear resistance was observed with fly ash and aluminium addition, resulting in an increase in interfacial bond strength and dense film formation.

 

Open Access Review Article

Studies, Synthesis and Characterization of Chelation Ion-Exchange Properties of Copolymer Resin Derived from 8-Hydroxyquinoline-Formaldehyde-Pyrogallol

Soumaya Gharbi, Jameleddine Khiari, Bassem Jamoussi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 874-889
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2014/10877

Chelating ion-exchange resin was synthesized by the condensation of 8-hydroxyquinoline with pyrogallol using formaldehyde as a cross-linking agent at 120ºC in DMF in the presence of hydrocloric acid catalyst. The resin was characterized by elemental analysis and FTIR. The morphology of the synthesis resin was examined by optical photograph and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The physicochemical properties of the resin were studied. The cation exchange capacity was measured and the effect of pH and metal ion concentration on the ability of the ion exchange were studied. The ratio of cation exchange reaction and the distribution coefficient in tartaric acid medium at different pH were also studied using the method of batch equilibration.