Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of SiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Process and Its Degradation of Methylene Blue

Ruchi Nandanwar, Purnima Singh, Fozia Z. Haque

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/10875

Nanomaterials are used for the miniaturization of particular electronic device. But new era of technology demands a cheaper and more commercial method to produce excellent material especially silicon dioxide. The present work deals with the sol-gel synthesis of SiO2 material and also provides a basic understanding of the effect of calcination temperature on the growth of SiO2 by hydrolysis of TEOS with ethanol, deionized water and catalyst mixture. The properties of resulting materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), AFM and optical properties through UV-visible spectroscopy and Photo Luminescence (PL). The XRD study of pure SiO2 with calcination temperature at 300°C shows well crystalline characteristics and having hexagonal crystal structure. SEM results show obtained silica particles were having spherical morphology. The proper temperature the PL intensity was reduced and the shape of the emission spectrum slightly split into sharp peaks. UV-visible absorbance spectra of the silica samples having wide band gap showing absorbance in the ultra violet region. The degradation of methylene blue was selected as a test reaction

to confer the photocatalytic activity of as obtained SiO2 samples. The results showed a strong correlation between the structure evolutions, crystallite size and photo degradation performance of SiO2. Although the photo degradation of silica calcined sample was found faster rate of MB breakdown than that of dried sample under visible irradiation.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Toxic Elements in Onion Farms in Northern Nigeria

I. S. Shabanda, N. Kabiru

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/10210

This research has examined the levels of four toxic elements (lead, cadmium, manganese and iron) from four different locations of onion farms in Aliero metropolis of Kebbi State Nigeria in West Africa. The metals were analysed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The concentration of metals at the four sampling points, designated as A, B, C, D, follows the order: iron (D 65.588ppm > A 47.577ppm> B 7.927 > C 5.585), lead (A 2.321ppm > D 0.784ppm > C 0.517ppm > B 0.148ppm), manganese (A 1.552ppm > D 1.237ppm > C 1.070ppm > B 0.148ppm and cadmium B 0.008ppm > D 0.005ppm > C 0.004ppm > A 0.003ppm. Iron in all samples had higher concentration than the rest metals, while cadmium had the lowest concentration. However, the concentration of all the metals was below the WHO recommended limits.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Latex Films as Carrier for Casearia sylvestris Swartz Extract Associated with Ciprofloxacin

Luis Felipe Cesar Bolognesi, Felipe Azevedo Borges, José Luiz Ferreira Cinman, Rosângela Gonçalves da Silva, André Gonzaga dos Santos, Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/12263

In order to create a new sustained drug delivery system applied for tissue regeneration, this study beget a natural rubber latex (NRL) film with Casearia sylvestris extract and ciprofloxacin. Manipulated from the biomaterial latex obtained by the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, the NRL film has shown to be a great angiogenic compound and also has shown a great potential in being a possible carrier for sustained drug release. In order to increase the therapeutic spectrum of the film two substances was added to it: the C. sylvestris extract which has antiulcer, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects due to its casearins and the antibiotic ciprofloxacin which is considered as one of the main drugs used for open wounds in the skin. The study occurred at State São Paulo University in Assis (UNESP-FCL), Brazil. The substances were mixed and a film was made by casting at ambient temperature creating circular films with 5cm of diameter. After that the film was placed in 1 liter of water to start the release study. The release behavior was analyzed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry being the casearins related to the wavelength of 235nm and the ciprofloxacin of 320nm. The film supported the release of compounds, releasing 93.73% of the extract and 56.53% of the drug, along 29 hours. In addition, the incorporation was proven by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which showed the morphology of pure and incorporated films and also by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which has shown that no chemical change occurred during the process. Thereby, according to results, the material has a possible approach to biomedical application.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Al2O3 Filler on Mechanical Behavior Acrylic Films

A. R. Bansod, O. P. Chimankar, A. Gandhe, B. Sannaki

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/12031

In order to improve the mechanical properties of acrylic films, Poly methyl-methacrylate (PMMA)/Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films are prepared following solution casting technique. The mechanical behavior of prepared films has been analyzed by employing Ultrasonic Pulse Echo method. The morphology of films is examined via XRD and SEM analysis. The synergetic effect is observed in films from obtained ultrasonic data. The elastic modulus is calculated and compared for better utilization.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition by Pumpkin Peels Extract in Petroleum Environment

Rana Afif Majed Anaee

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 32-40
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/12594

The corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in petroleum environment by ethanolic extract of pumpkin peels has been studied in relation to three concentrations of the inhibitor include 3, 5 and 7mL/L at four temperatures over the range 50–80°C using electrochemical measurements (open circuit potential measurements and galvanostatic polarization). The results were supplemented with optical microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. All the methods employed are in reasonable agreement. Inhibition efficiencies were calculated and the results show that 5mL/L of pumpkin peels extract gave the best inhibition which ranged from 72.4 to 75.7%. Thermodynamics of adsorption (enthalpy of adsorption, the entropy of adsorption and Gibbs free energy) were calculated and discussed. Thermodynamic functions of adsorption processes were calculated from experimental polarization data and the interpretation of the results reveals that this pumpkin peels extract obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarization curves indicate that green inhibitor is a mixed type inhibitor, which decreases both Tafel slopes.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Health Hazard of Metal Concentration in Groundwater of Bangladesh

A. R. M. Towfiqul Islam, M. A. Rakib, M. Saidul Islam, Khurshida Jahan, Masum A. Patwary

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 41-49
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/13175

The study was to assess health hazard of metal concentation in groundwater of Bangladesh for drinking purposes. A number of 13 deep tube wells were selected purposively for collecting groundwater samples from the different sampling location of the study area. The study was carried out by laboratory analysis of chemical parameters which were analyzed by ion Chromatograph (IC) and atomic absorption spectrophotometer methods (AAS). The result shown that the concentration of iron and manganese were found to be more than permissible limit according to Bangladesh and WHO standard. The descriptive statistics revealed that most of the heavy metal concentrations like As, Cd, Fe and Mn were found to be range from 0.00 to 0.02 mg/l, 0.00 to 0.20 mg/l, 0.11 to 24.20 mg/l, 0.06 to 16.00 mg/l respectively within accessible limit for drinking according to Bangladesh and WHO standard except some water sampling locations were exceed the permissible limits. Pearson correlation matrix results were depicted that a strong positive correlation between the parameters such as Na+ and SO42- and K+ and NH3- while low negative correlation were existed between Dissolved Oxygen and Mn+. From the analysis of result, it suggests that using groundwater for drinking purposes in the study area is slightly detrimental to human health  hazard and thier surrouding environment.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Radiation on Unsteady MHD Flow of a Chemically Reacting Fluid Past a Hot Vertical Porous Plate: A Finite Difference Approach

K. Srihari, K. Avinash

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 50-69
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/11486

The paper deals with the effect of radiation on unsteady free convention flow of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting fluid past an infinite hot vertical porous plate embedded in porous medium. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied normal to the fluid flow. Chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Temperature of the plate is assumed to be span wise cosinusoidally fluctuating with time. In order to establish a mathematical convenience of converging the solution at a finite point ( ), the governing equations of the problem are transformed to a new system of co-ordinates and then resulting equations are reduced to coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations of zeroth and first order, using appropriate perturbation technique. These zeroth and first order equations are solved numerically by making use of finite difference method and the simulation is carried out by coding in C-Program. Graphical results for velocity, temperature and concentration fields are presented and discussed at various parametric conditions. A research finding of this study, achieved that the temperature and velocity profiles are observed to be decreasing with the increasing values of radiation parameter.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Single and Competitive Adsorption of Linear and Branched Paraffins over Silicalite: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study

Arsène H. Yonli, Isabelle Gener-Batonneau, Samuel Mignard

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/13240

A thermodynamic and kinetic study was realized by competitive and non-competitive adsorption for the separation of n-hexane isomers. Two mixtures of n-C6/3MP and 3MP/23DMB were studied.  For the single component adsorption the maximal adsorption capacity were close for the different isomers while the diffusivity for the 23DMB isomer was outstandingly low due to steric hindrance. For the competitive adsorption we had from an initial proportion of 50% for each sorbate an adsorption of 34% and 66% respectively for 3MP and n-C6. For the 3MP/23DMB mixture we had an adsorption of 62% and 38% for 3MP and 23DMB respectively. For the two mixtures the selectivity of the zeolite increased with the adsorption capacity and decreased after the values of 0.63 mmol/g and 1.65 mmol/g respectively for the 3MP/23DMB and n-C6/3MP mixtures. The adsorption rates were lower in the case of competitive adsorption and a kinetic separation could be envisaged for the improvement of the octane number.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability-indicating Methods for the Determination of Closantel Sodium by HPLC, Densitometry, Spectrofluorimetry and pH Induced ∆A

Sawsan A. Abdel Razeq, Asmaa O. El Demerdash, Hoda F. El Sanabary

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 79-93
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/13090

Four stability-indicating methods were developed for the determination of closantel-Na in the presence of its alkaline degradation products. The first one was HPLC method in which efficient separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column with isocratic elution and a mobile phase composed of two mixtures A and B in a ratio of (30:70, v/v). Mobile phase A of ammonium acetate buffer- acetonitrile- water (100:30:870, v/v/v) and mobile phase B of the same composition in a ratio (100:870:30, v/v/v). Bromohexine-HCl was used as an internal standard and linearity was obtained in the range of 0.5-10.0 μg/mL with mean accuracy of 99.63% ± 0.49. The second method was a densitometric evaluation of thin-layer chromatograms of the drug using a mobile phase of ethyl acetate-methanol-ammonia (33%) (17:2:1, v/v/v) and scanned at 245 nm. Closantel-Na was separated from its three degradates with Rf 0.40, 0.05, 0.14 and 0.93, respectively; and determined in the range of 0.5-10.0 μg/spot with mean accuracy of 100.11%±0.27. The third method was based on measuring the native fluorescence intensity of closantel-Na in ethanolic H2SO4 solution at 477 nm (λex 337 nm) in the range of 0.5-5.0 μg/mL with mean accuracy of 99.84%±0.52. The forth one was pH-induced ΔA spectrophotometry based on measuring the ΔA of closantel-Na between ethanol and ethanolic HCl solution at 373.5 and 286.5 nm in the range of 6.0-100.0 μg/mL with mean accuracy of 99.43%±0.61 and 99.73%±0.58; respectively. The four methods provided selective recovery of the intact drug (99.24%±0.61, 100.21%±1.33, 100.54%±1.06 and 99.67%±0.96 and 100.50%±1.14; respectively.) in the presence of up to 90% its alkaline degradates by HPLC method and densitometric methods, 30% by the spectrofluorimetric method and 40% at λ max 373.5 nm and 15% at 286.5 nm, respectively; by the pH induced ΔA method. Successful application of the four methods for analyzing closantel-Na in Closa-Atak injectable solution was obtained and results were statistically analyzed and found to be in accordance with those given by a reported method.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Mn2+ and Zn2+ in Aqueous Solution by Using Aluminum Pillared Clay from Boboyo (Far North Cameroon)

M. Harouna, R. Djakba, J. P. Nguetnkam, B. B. Loura, Ileana DenisaNistor, J. M. Ketcha

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 94-104
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/11726

The use of clay materials in the treatment of filthy water and industrial waste is a promising way for the restoration of the environment. Following this view, clay materials of Boboyo (from Far North Region of Cameroon), specially made up of smectite, have been pillared with polyoxycations of aluminum. Next, some trials of adsorption of metallic ions Mn2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solution mixture were carried out by varying the contact time, t, the pH, the initial concentration of heavy metals, Co and the temperature, T, °C. The kinetics of the reactions indicate  that the adsorption of Mn2+ and Zn2+ ions was very fast and attained equilibrium in 10 minutes. The adsorption capacity, Qe, of the modified clay increases with increasing pH up to pH = 6, and reduces when the pH becomes basic. This phenomenon also increases with the increase in the initial concentration of the metallic ions. It was observed that, temperature has a less influence on the retention capacity. The nature of the retention phenomenon of both heavy metal ions is exothermic and physical. The adsorption isotherms are comparable with the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorbed quantities from the monolayer coverage deduced from Langmuir’s model are 24.4 mg/g and 24.6 mg/g for Mn2+ and Zn2+ ions respectively.