Open Access Original Research Article

Chemistry of Trail Pheromones from Cubitermes Termites (Amitermes dentatus): An Innovation in Pest Management

O. U. Igwe, P. N. Eze

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/14256

Trail pheromones were extracted with petroleum ether from the sternal gland near the anterior portion of the fifth abdominal sternit of cubitermes termites (Amitermes dentatus) and fourteen pheromonal compounds were characterised using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) Technique in combination with Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The compounds analysed include     ethylbenzene (6.70%), 3,4-dimethylheptane (6.32%), decane (6.87%), 2,7-dimethyloctane (12.28%), 2-methylundecane (19.00%), 3-methylnonane (5.14 %), 2,6-dimethyloctane (4.23%), undecane (11.44 %), 2-methyldecane (3.94%), methyl decanoate (2.35%), 14-octadecenoic acid methyl ester (10.71%), heptacosanoic acid methyl ester (1.88%), 2-butyloctan-1-ol (3.45%) and E-2-octadecadecen-1-ol (5.70%). FT-IR analysis of the extract showed peaks at 1460.16 (CH3 bending), 1549.86 (C C), 1636.65 (C C), 2866.32 (C H), 2934.79 (C H) and 3426.66 (O H) cm-1 indicating the presence of alkane, aromatic, alkene and alcoholic compounds in the extract. These compounds consist of 69.22% hydrocarbon, 14.94% ester, 9.15% alcohol and 6.70% aromatic compound. The highest component was 2-methylundecane followed by 2,7-dimethyloctane. This examination has revealed that the trail pheromone in termites is not just a single compound but a mixture of compounds. The synthetic forms of these semiochemicals might be applied in luring and mass trapping termites for possible extermination. This method of pest control ensures environmental friendliness as the problems posed by dangerous chemicals are eradicated.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Combination of Trace Elements

Sanjiv Singh, H. S. Chandel, Sujeet Kushwaha, Jitendar Malik

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 25-37
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/13479

Background: In order to compare the three combinations of trace elements for correction of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidaemia, glycogen content in liver and activities of some important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in diabetes mellitus, the anti diabetic effect and acute oral toxicity of a combination of trace elements were assessed.

Material and Methods: The anti-diabetic activity of the combination of the trace elements was compared with various non diabetic groups and Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups for period of 30 days.

Results and Conclusion: The results of the anti-diabetic activity of the combination of trace elements the aspects of Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Lipid Peroxidation, Glutathione, Catalase, Glycogen, Glucose -6- phosphates, oxidative stress parameters in liver indicated that the increased anti-diabetic activity and the protective efficacy of pancreas injury for diabetes were observed. The strong antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect observed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats justifies the use of these combined trace elements for the treatment of diabetes-related complications.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic and Batch Equilibrium Adsorption of Nickel (II) and Copper (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution On to Activated Carbon Prepared from Balanites aegyptiaca Shells

H. Massai, L. A. Nlondok, C. Tcheka, B. B. Loura, Ileana Denisa Nistor, J. M. Ketcha

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 38-50
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/14514

The adsorption capacity of Nickel (Ni2+) and Copper (Cu2+) ions from an aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from Balanites aegyptiaca shells. ¶Prepared activated carbon was characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy FTIR, and by determination of the iodine number and the carbonization yield. ¶To implement the adsorption capacity of activated carbon, of the contact time, adsorbent mass, pH, initial concentration of the adsorbate and the addition of the sodium chloride electrolyte (NaCl). ¶To analyze the adsorption mechanism, Langmuir isotherms, Freundlich models were studied.  Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (D-K-R) as well as the kinetic models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intra particulate diffusion. ¶The iodine index gave a value of 550.11 mg/g. ¶The adsorption equilibrium is quickly reached at the end of 10 min and 12 min for Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions respectively. ¶The maximum adsorbed quantities are of 540 mg/g and 491 mg/g for Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions respectively. ¶These values are slightly higher than the quantities calculated by the Langmuir model, which implies better adsorbates adsorption on the activated carbon. Adsorption took place in an acidic medium with optimal pH values of 4 and 5 for the Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions respectively. The pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models describe the kinetics adsorption of Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions respectively. ¶ ¶The addition of NaCl electrolyte showed a very significant increase in the adsorbed quantities, because of increase in the ionic force of the solution. This study revealed that activated carbon obtained from Balanites aegyptiaca shells is a good adsorbent for the elimination of Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions from aqueous solution.


Open Access Original Research Article

Relation between Transfer of CO2 and the pH of the Medium

Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa, Felipe Vieira Camerini

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/15350

Microalgae are great users of CO2 and can fix large amounts of this compound. In algal biomass production systems, the requirement of carbon is usually supplied by CO2, continuously or intermittently. The relative concentrations of inorganic carbon species determine the pH and, in turn, are determined by the pH of the medium. This study aimed to establish a relation between the variation in CO2 concentration and the pH of the medium and validate the equation proposed for the transfer of CO2 during the supply of this gas in the liquid medium in a carbon dioxide biofixation process in an open raceway type bioreactor, provided with a carbon dioxide injection system. The experiments were performed in a 200 L open raceway type bioreactor, in which a gas injection system was used where air enriched with 12% CO2 (V/V) at a specific flow rate of 0.05 min-1. An equation was established to determine the pH variation from the variation of the CO2 concentration in the environment. The data obtained from the proposed equation were satisfactorily explained by experimental data (r2 = 0.90).


Open Access Original Research Article

Photocatalytic Degradations of Malachite Green on Magnetically Separable Ni1-xCoxFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Using a Hydrothermal Process

H- Y. He

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 58-68
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/14764

Ni1-xCoxFe2O4 (x=0–1.0) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by using a hydrothermal process. The nanoparticles had average particle sizes of 14.8−29.4 nm and a narrow band gap of 1.75−1.91 eV, decreasing with increasing Co content. The nanoparticles showed an excellent sunlight-excited photocatalytic activity to malachite green in water. Moreover, the addition of a small amount of H2O2 resulted in an obviously enhanced photodegradation, indicating a Fenton-like reaction. The photodegradation and Fenton-like photodegradation rates increased with increasing Co content. Complete Co substitution for Ni resulted in an optimal effect. Quasi-kinetic rate constant k values were in the range of 2.23–7.2×10-2 min-1 and increased to 1.3–6.0×10-1 min-1 upon the addition of H2O2. The measurement of oxidation-reduction potential of the nanoaprticles in the photodegradation condition indicated a reductive characteristic enhanced with increasing Co content. Furthermore, the nanoparticles possessed high saturation magnetizations of 50.7−64.2 emu·g1 and low coercivity of 0.4−1.7 kOe, which ensured that they gave magnetic separable in finally degraded dye aqueous solution.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Arsenic Extraction and Speciation Techniques in Soil and Water

Shah Rukh, Mohammad Saleem Akhtar, Mehruinsa Memon, Ayaz Mehmood, Muhammad Imran

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/13680

Arsenic toxicity and bioavailability are controlled by its chemical forms (e.g. exchangeable, sorbed on organic matter, Fe/Al bound pools and mineral phases) and oxidation states (As(III) and As(V)). High interest has been developed in measurement of arsenic species due to their hazardous nature. Little information is available on methods used for quantitative distribution of arsenic forms and species in contaminated soils and water. The aim of this article is to provide an understanding of available techniques for arsenic speciation and its extraction from soil. Various techniques used in arsenic speciation (spectrometric, chromatographic and voltammetric) are discussed. Research efforts are still needed to develop inexpensive, rapid, sensitive and reproducible methodologies for arsenic species capable of working in the low detection limits.