Open Access Short Research Article

Supercapacitor Electrode Material Based on Nickel Vanadium Oxide

Benorita Prusty, Munesh Chandra Adhikary, Chapal Kumar Das

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 91-95
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/15866

Nickel vanadium oxide with rod like architecture has been hydrothermally synthesized and electrochemically characterized as electrode material for supercapacitor application. The maximum specific capacitance of 412 and 297 F/g was achieved respectively at 2 mV/s and 3 A/g for the nickel vanadium oxide electrode in 1 M LiCl electrolyte. The NVO electrode also responded with high energy density of 165 Wh/kg at the power density of 3015 W/kg accompanied by 89.5% specific capacitance retention over 500 consecutive CV cycles at 2 mV/S.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical and Nutritional Evaluation of Velvet Tamarind (Dialium guineense) Pulps

Ogungbenle Henry Niyi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 69-76
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/14678

The ash contents, minerals, anti nutritional factors, calorific value and vitamin C of velvet tamarind pulps were investigated. The results showed: total ash (1.47±0.02%), water soluble ash (0.40±0.10%), acid insoluble ash (2.31±0.15%) and sulphated ash (1.95±0.01%). The minerals in the sample included: sodium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. Potassium was the highest with the value of 124±0.50mg/g, while zinc was the lowest with the value of 11.8±0.02 mg/g. The anti nutritional factors showed that velvet tamarind pulps contained: oxalate (2.251±0.01 mg/g), tannin (0.0076±0.03%), phytate (112.82±0.02 mg/g) and cyanide (0.338±0.04%). The value of vitamin C in the sample was 33.33±0.10 mg/100 g while the energy value was 761.4±0.01 kJ/100 g. The results indicated that the velvet tamarind pulps would provide essential valuable minerals, energy and vitamin C needed for good body development.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Co2+ and Ni2+ Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low Cost Synthetics Na-4-mica

F. S. Hashem, Z. Ali Alahmad

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 96-104
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/15191

A high charged density sodium fluorophlogopite mica Na-4-mica, ideal chemical structure Na4Si4Al4Mg6O20F4.xH2O, was prepared by a simple and economic method using kaolinite as a source for SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. The prepared mica was characterized by using XRD, DSC and SEM. Na-4-mica was used for removal of Co2+ and Ni+2 ions from aqueous solutions using a stepwise remediation method. The factors affecting the removal efficiency such as pH change during the exchange reaction, particle size of Na-4-mica, initial metal concentration were investigated. The results showed the removal efficiency increased by decreasing the particle size of the mica and initial concentration of the heavy metal in the solution. Na-4 mica showed removal efficiency for Ni2+ ions higher than that for Co2+ ions. This related to the difference in the hydrated ions radii between Co2+ and Ni2+ ions.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Interaction of Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic Acid with Cr(VI) in the Oxidative Decarboxylation of Phenylsulfinyl Acetic Acid and Linear Free Energy Relationship

Perumal Subramaniam, Natesan Thamil Selvi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 105-114
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/15998

Aims: To investigate the catalytic activity of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid in the redox reaction of Cr(VI) and phenylsulfinyl acetic acid.

Study Design: The mechanism of the reaction was designed on the basis of the observed results of kinetic, spectral and substituent effect studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of the Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur, Tamil Nadu, India. September 2013 – January 2014.

Methodology: Phenylsulfinyl acetic acid and ten meta- and para-substituted phenylsulfinyl acetic acids essential for the present kinetic study were synthesized. The kinetic study was performed in 40% acetonitrile-60% H2O medium under pseudo-first-order conditions by maintaining [PSAA] >> [Cr(VI)] throughout the experiment. The progress of the reaction was monitored by following the rate of disappearance of Cr(VI) spectrophotometrically at 351 nm. The effect of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid on the rate of the reaction and the applicability of linear free energy relationship with different phenylsulfinyl acetic acids were tested.

Results: The reaction shows unit order dependence on Cr(VI) but follows Michalis-Menten kinetics with respect to substrate as well as catalyst. The order with respect to [H+] is between one and two. The thermodynamic parameters ∆S (-93.2 JK-1 mol-1) and ∆H (57.7 kJ mol-1) are evaluated respectively from the intercept and slope of the Eyring’s plot. The Hammett’s correlation affords a negative ρ value (-1.05).

Conclusion: Pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid catalyzes the reaction and Cr(VI)-PDA complex is assumed to be the oxidizing species of the reaction. The sulfur of PSAA undergoes nucleophilic attack on Cr(VI)-PDA complex forming a ternary complex, Cr(VI)-PDA-PSAA which experiences decarboxylation, ligand coupling and further decomposition giving methylphenyl sulfone as the product. The mechanism with the associated reaction kinetics is assigned in support of substituent effect.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectroscopic Study of Bifenox Complexation with α-, β- and -Cyclodextrin in Solution and Solid State

Pushpa R. Gopalan, P. Subramaniam, A. G. Anna Selvi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 115-125
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16078

Aims: To study the host-guest interactions of α-, β- and g-cyclodextrin with herbicide bifenox.

Study Design: Binding constants of the complexes were determined by Benesi-Hildebrand method and stoichiometry of the complexes was confirmed by Job’s method. In addition, by means of FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectral analysis, the host-guest interaction of inclusion complexes was deduced.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur, Tamil Nadu, India. July 2013-November 2013.

Methodology: Absorption spectrum was recorded with a Systronics-2201 UV-visible spectrometry. FT-IR spectra were obtained with Shimadzu FT-IR spectrometer using KBr pellet. 1H-NMR spectra were recorded with Bruker 300 MHz spectrometer.

Results: The observed results of this study indicate the favoured modes of inclusion of bifenox inside the cavity of cyclodextrins. The experimental results show that the mode of inclusion is the benzene ring with-C-Cl part of the bifenox molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity.

Conclusion: UV-visible, FT-IR and 1H-NMR studies proved the formation of inclusion complex between cyclodextrins and bifenox in solution and solid state.

 

Open Access Review Article

Critical Evaluation of Some Available Treatment Techniques for Textile & Paper Industry Effluents: A Review

Ishtiyak Qadir, R. C. Chhipa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 77-90
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/15484

The disposal of untreated effluents from the textile & paper industries is a major environmental concern these days. Textile effluents are colored & contain carcinogenic aromatic amines, dyes, organic & inorganic molecules. However, paper mill effluents are dark in colour due to the presence of wood extractives, lignin, resins, tannins, synthetic dyes & their degradation products. Both textile & paper industry wastewaters are characterized by extreme fluctuations in many parameters such as pH, color, temperature, suspended solids, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) & salinity. The recycling of wastewater of textile & paper industries has thus been recommended due to the high levels of contamination in dyeing and finishing processes. So this review discusses the various methods of treatment available in the literature for textile and paper industry effluents. Use of low cost adsorbents obtained from various plant materials such as neem leaves, bark of babul & maize corn carbon (MCC)are highly encouraged for the decolorization of aqueous solutions of dyed effluents of industries because they are not only cost effective but sometimes more efficient than the commercially available activated charcoal. A combination of anaerobic-aerobic treatments to effluents of textile and paper industries has been found to be more economical & effective in terms of reduction of pollution. Also the degradation of dyes by mixed cultures has been found to be more effective than those of the individual strains of microorganisms. Among all these methods, advanced oxidation processes are the most promising treatment techniques these days as these processes can be used to oxidize the more complex organic compounds without production of any secondary components to be handled.