Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Amino and Fatty Acids Composition of Senna alata Seed

R. A. Adigun, U. Z. Faruq, U. A. Birnin Yauri, Y. J. Oyeniyi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16605

Aim: To investigate the amino acids and fatty acids contents of Senna alata seed.

Study Design: To Collect and analyze the seed sample of Senna alata from Osun State in South Western Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: Seed samples of Senna alata were collected from Irepodun Local Government, Osun state, Nigeria at the start of the raining season in March, 2013.

Methodology: The collected samples were identified at Taxonomy unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, as Senna alata. The determination of the amino acid profile in the sample was determined using methods described in literature while the determination of the protein content was done using micro Kjeldahl method. The amino acid was analyzed using a Technicon Sequential Multi-Sample Amino Acid Analyzer (TSM). The fatty acids content was determined by converting the fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), after which it was loaded to a gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer for analysis.

Results: The protein content of the seed was 12.75±0.05% while the amino acids content revealed glutamic acid and aspartic acid as predominant non essential amino acids while leucine as the most predominant essential amino acid. The sample also contains appreciable amounts of other essential amino acids. The fatty acid content of Senna alata seed oil revealed unsaturated fatty acid; linoleic acid as the major fatty acid (34.26%), followed by saturated fatty acid; palmitic acid (13.73%). The oil was having more unsaturated fatty acid (51.90%) than the saturated fatty acid (43.34%).

Conclusion: Senna alata seed is a good source of valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and threonine. The high amount of linoleic acid and palmitic acid also suggest the edibility of Senna alata seed oil.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Ternary Dye System Adsorption on to Melon (Citrillus lanatus) Seed Husk

A. A. Giwa, A. A. Olajire, D. O. Adeoye, T. A. Ajibola

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 7-25
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16748

The adsorption characteristics of ternary dye system (TDS), comprising of a mixture of congo red, methyl orange and methylene blue, on formaldehyde-treated melon husk (FMH) were investigated with respect to the changes in initial pH of TDS, contact time, and initial TDS concentration. The surface of FMH was studied by investigation using  Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption equilibrium of TDS was rapidly reached after 45 minutes of contact time and pH of 8.5. The equilibrium adsorption data were interpreted using the following isotherm models Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Harkin-Jura and Halsey and the goodness of fittings were monitored using linear regression analysis (R2), sum-of- square-error (SSE) and chi-square (χ2). The results indicated that the isotherm could be interpreted by Freundlich model as it was the best fitted of all the models used, (R2 = 0.998) suggesting multilayer adsorption. The kinetics of the adsorption process were analyzed using three kinetic models; pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and the adsorption data followed the pseudo second-order model more closely (R2 = 0.998 – 1). The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters such as ΔGº and ΔSº were positive, indicating the presence of an energy barrier in the adsorption process. The positive values of ΔHº for biosorbent indicated that the adsorption mechanism was endothermic.  The adsorption capacity of TDS was found to be 26.42 mg/g.


Open Access Original Research Article

Application of HPTLC-densitometry by Derivatization and Stability Indicating LC for Simultaneous Determination of Mefloquine Hydrochloride and Artesunate in Combined Dosage form

S. M. Sandhya, P. S. Shiji Kumar, S. Meena

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 26-37
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16292

This paper presents simultaneous quantification of mefloquine hydrochloride (MEFQ) and artesunate (ARTS) by HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods in combined tablet formulation. In RP-HPLC method, the drugs were resolved using a mobile phase of methanol-phosphate buffer (70:30, v/v) with pH adjusted to 3.2 using phosphoric acid on Symmetry C18 (250 × 4.6 mm and 5 µm) column in isocratic mode. Quantification was achieved with UV detection at 220 nm for MEFQ and 313 nm for ARTS based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges of 12.5–75.0 and 2.5–15 µg/mL for MEFQ and ARTS respectively. In HPTLC method, the chromatograms were developed using a mobile phase of toluene-ethyl acetate-acetone (2.5:1.0:0.5, v/v/v) in pre-coated plate of silica gel 60 F254. It is a single method with two steps in which after the development of chromatogram, MEFQ was detected at 285 nm. Then ARTM was derivatized and detected at 525 nm. Recovery values of 97.36–98.80%, %RSD <2 and r value >0.9994 shows that the developed methods were accurate and precise. In HPLC, the binary drug mixture was exposed to thermal, photolytic, acid, alkali and oxidative stress. The methods distinctly separated the drugs and degradation products even in actual samples. In conclusion, the proposed HPLC and HPTLC methods were simple, precise, rapid and accurate. Both methods have the potential to determine these drugs simultaneously from dosage forms without any interference of excipients.


Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Adsorption Capacity of Phenol Using Groundnut Husk-based Activated Carbon

W. O. Medjor, C. A. Wepuaka, Aisha Pariya Yahya

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 38-46
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17305

Equilibrium adsorption studies of phenol onto activated carbon prepared from groundnut husk was investigated for effectiveness. Groundnut husks were washed, dried at temperatures between 110°C and 160ºC, pulverized and finally activated at 200°C for 3 hours. Optimum conditions of carbon dosage, pH, contact time and influence of concentration of phenol on carbon were investigated. Several analyses of isotherm data were tested by fitting them into different isotherm (Temkin, Langmuir, Dubinin-Kaganer-Rushkevich and Freundlich) models. The results of the optimization studies indicated an optimum adsorption of phenol with carbon dosage of 2.2 g; pH = 5 and contact time = 5 hours. Temkin, Dubinin-Kaganer-Rushkevich and Freundlich had high correlation coefficients in the range of 0.853 – 0.9501. The experimental data fitted adequately into these models but not into the Langmuir isotherm model with extremely low regression coefficient of 0.0038. The high correlation coefficients connoted strong interactions between the adsorbate and the adsorbent and a good interpretation of the adsorption behaviour of phenol. However, the Temkin and Dubinin-Kaganer-Rushkevich  models showed indications of chemisorptions with high heat of adsorption of 1531.39 J mol-1 and mean energy of 5227.1 Jmol-1 respectively and the value of the separator factor RL­­­ (0.1805) that was less than unity obtained from the Langmuir model indicated favourable adsorption. The value of 1/n = 0.9277 that was less than unity from the Freundlich model depicted strong adsorption intensity. The adsorption of phenol by the activated carbon was best described by Freundlich model with the highest regression coefficient of 0.9501. It was evident from the Freundlich adsorption isotherm that adsorption capacity increased as the initial concentration of phenol was increased until a possible removal efficiency of 100% could be achieved. The adsorbent was found to be suitable and effective in the treatment of wastewater laden with phenol.


Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics of Carvedilol Oxidation by Peroxodisulfate

Raed A. Ghanem

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 47-59
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16986

The oxidation of indolic beta blocker Carvedilol in the presence of Potassium Perxodisulfate (PDS) in 40% methanol-water has been studied using spectrophotometric method. It has been found that, oxidation reaction starts with electrophilic attack of PDS species on the protonated form of Carvedilol moiety leading to form indolineninic species which become rearranged into more stable indoxyle form. Once it is formed, a second attack of PDS occurs leading to form the final product. The reaction product was characterized as carbazole 1,4 quinone. A polar mechanism was proposed for the oxidation reaction. The detailed mechanism of the reaction was proposed, and thermodynamic parameters were obtained for two steps reaction.


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Soil at E-waste Blazing Sites in Computer Village, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria

Edwin Andrew Ofudje, Olubunmi Kolawole Akiode, Gabriel Opeoluwa Oladipo, Adebusayo Emmanuel Adedapo, Lateefah Olanike Adebayo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 60-70
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16114

The evaluation of open blazing of electronic waste on the chemical composition of three different soil where e-waste were regularly being burnt with control samples at various distances away from each blazing site at computer village, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cr, Zn, Cd and Cu from the three locations were found to be 120.3±0.4, 18.7±1.3, 90.3±0.4, 16.4±0.5 and 60.3±2.0 mg/kg respectively. There was gradual decrease in heavy metals concentrations at various distances away from each blazing site as the distances increase which suggested that there were leaching of these heavy metals from e-waste containing substances. Pearson correlation revealed that some of the heavy metals showed both positive and negative correlations with each other. When compared with standard values, only cadmium exceeded the tolerable limit recommended by European Union and USEPA. Thus, open blazing of e-waste contributed to the concentrations of these heavy metals in the soils.