Open Access Short Research Article

Sorption Kinetics Study of Monocrotophos (MCP) Pesticide in Unsterilized Soil

Aloysius q A. Pam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 183-192
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17495

Sorption Kinetics of monocrotophos in sandy soil was studied with the aim to establish its fate in the soil. The soil used was characterized with respect to soil pH, organic carbon, moisture, silt, clay and sand content. The sorption kinetic studies were carried out by observing the disappearance of monocrotophos in solution for several days. The kinetic studies showed that sorption of monocrotophos followed first order kinetics and were measured in terms of two processes namely; fast and slow sorption. The amount of pesticide sorbed by soil was found to increase with time and the values showed that the soil has low capacity to sorbe or retain monocrotophos when applied. During this time, rate constant for the disappearance from solution of monocrotophos were found to be 18.2× 100 s-1 and 0.248 ×101 s-1 respectively in fast and slow sorption processes. While, the rates for fast sorption and slow sorption were found to be 5.3885 s-1 and 0.0315 s-1.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical-Chemical Parameters of Honey of Stingless Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

Andreia Santos do Nascimento, Luis Carlos Marchini, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Diogo Feliciano Dias Araújo, Ricardo Alves de Olinda, Talita Antonia da Silveira

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 139-149
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17547

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical quality of honeys samples of stingless bee (Meliponinae). Physico-chemical analyses were: moisture, color, pH, acidity, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ashes, diastasic activity, reducing sugars, and sucrose. For the parameters hydroxymethylfurfural, ashes, reducing sugars and sucrose, the samples complied with the requirements of the current Brazilian legislation for honey. The diastasic activity and moisture parameters did not meet thresholds in the legislation, pointing to the need to create a specific legislation for honey of stingless bees, given the large number of species and the different characteristics of the honey that they produce.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

MHD Mixed Convection Flow Past a Vertical Porous Plate in a Porous Medium with Heat Source/Sink and Soret Effects

C. Kalyani, M. Chenna Krishna Reddy, N. Kishan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 150-159
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16257

The present analysis is to study the boundary layer flow of an incompressible, steady combined free-forced convection and mass transfer flow over a vertical porous plate embedded in a porous medium with the effects of heat source/sink, suction/injection and thermal diffusion under the influence of magnetohydrodynamics. The uniform magnetic field is applied along the plate. With the help of similarity transformations the partial differential equations are transformed into a coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations, which are solved numerically by applying the implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller Box method. The effects of physical parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illustrated graphically showing the effects of the different parameter values of the magnetic field, suction, local heat source/sink, permeability parameters, Soret number and Schmidt number. Finally, the numerical data for the local skin friction    coefficient, the coefficient of local Nusselt number and coefficient of local Sherwood numbers also have been tabulated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectral Study of Aggregation Behavior of Remazol Brilliant Violet-5r Dye in Cationic Ligand Solutions

Ashraf El-Hashani, Abdelmeneim El-Dali, Khaled M. Elsherif

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 160-167
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17172

An UV-VIS spectrophotometric investigation has been made to study the interaction and aggregation of anionic remazol brilliant violet-5R (RBV-5R) dye in acidic ethanol amine and tallow amine solutions. As a consequence of increasing the concentration of ethanol amine, the maximum absorbance spectra was shifted to higher energy (blue shift) with increasing in the intensity and a new band with a maximum peak at 420 nm (H-band) was appeared, which is as a result of formation of new complex (dye-ethanolamine) or dye-dye aggregation (H-Aggregate). This was an evidence of aggregation by London dispersion and hydrophobic forces attraction. The binding constant, Kb, was determined using the modified Benesi–Hildebrand Equation and the standard free energy change ΔG was found -12.13 kJmol-1. By addition of acidic tallow amine solution to the dye, the changes in spectral features were recorded above the critical micelle concentrations. Spectra of aggregated dye molecules due to incorporated in micelles are increases with addition of tallow amine surfactants. It is shown that electrostatic interactions play a key role in dye binding to micelles. The surfactant micelle, which has a longer alkyl hydrocarbon chain, enables greater solubilization of dye. Thus, the hydrophobic interaction of the dye with micelles increases.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Emission Characteristics, Fuel Efficiency and Engine Power of Neem Oil Biodiesel Determined From IC Engine

Olugbenga Olufemi Awolu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 168-174
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17740

Aims: To evaluate the emission characteristics and engine performance of neem oil biodiesel using a single cylinder one-stroke 165 jet diesel engine.

Study Design:  Automotive gas oil (AGO) was blended with neem oil biodiesel (NOB) in the following percentages (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; 50:50; 40:60; 30:70; 20:80; 10:90 and 0:100) respectively

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Chemical engineering, Obafemi Awolowo university, Ile Ife and Department of Mechanical engineering, Obafemi Awolowo university, Ile Ife, Nigeria, between January 2011 and October, 2012.

Methodology: The AGO was blended with NOB as shown in the design of study. The blends were subjected to combustion in the single cylinder one-stroke jet diesel engine coupled with EGA4 palm top flue gas analyzer which was used in order to determine the effect of varying speed (750rpm and 900rpm) on the exhaust gases (CO and NO). Also, the engine power and specific fuel consumption were calculated in order to determine the efficiency of neem oil biodiesel in combustion engine. The combustion and the analyses were carried out, first by using a 100% AGO, then 100% NOB followed by the other blends.

Results: The result showed that there were reduction in CO and NO emission while using neem oil biodiesel. The result also showed that neem biodiesel blends had engine power and specific fuel capacity similar to AGO.

Conclusion: Neem oil biodiesel can be used with or without blends with AGO in diesel jet engines with lower emission characteristics and similar engine performance with that of AGO.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Some Coordination Polymalimides

Mohammed K. Younis, Salwan I. Mohammed, Chira Lazgin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 175-182
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18107

Twelve polymeric complexes were prepared from the polymerization of phenylazo-3-N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide and Phenylazo-3-N-(3-hydroxyphenyl) maleimide, with salts of Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Fe2+ these complexes were characterized by U.V., I.R. spectroscopy, elemental analysis, molar conductivity and magnetic moment, to ensure their geometry, according to these measurements all the complexes have tetrahedral geometry accept [CrL2Cl3.H2O ] and [NiL1Cl2.2H2O] which have octahedral one. The biological activity of these complexes showed a moderate inhibition towards some growth bacteria.