Open Access Short Research Article

Electronic Effect of Substituents Present on Carbonyl Compounds: Analysis of Product Formation in One-Pot Synthesis of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole Ring

Sheetal B. Marganakop, Ravindra R. Kamble, Gangadhar Y. Meti, Mahadev N. Kumbar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18204

Functionalized N-(4-acetyl-5-substituted-4, 5-dihydro-[1, 3, 4]-thiadiazol-2-yl)-acetamides (2a-m) were synthesized by three-fold  condensation of carbonyl compound, thiosemicarbazide  and acetic anhydride in an one pot three component reaction. In this reaction substituents on carbonyl compounds have played a key role in yield of the product formation. Carbonyl compounds with either electron withdrawing or electron releasing substituents have formed better percentage of products than un-substituted and sterically hindered compounds.


Open Access Short Research Article

Differential Temperature Model (DTM): A New Thermodynamic Indicator for the Detection of the Number of Ionizable Protons in Strong Acids

I. A. Akpan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17419

The chemistry of ionization of strong acids via oxonium route was examined in thermodynamics context. The research led to the establishment of a new chemical hypothesis which derivatives gave rise to a differential temperature model. The thermodynamic model has been applied to detect the number of ionizable protons in one molecule of any strong acid in solution.


Open Access Original Research Article

Electrochemical and Adsorption Behaviour of Diospyros mespiliformis on Annealed Carbon steel Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid

R. S. Oguike, A. M. Kolo, A. A. Ayuk, F. C. Eze, E. E. Oguzie

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16679

The interfacial activities of Diospyros mespiliformis on annealed carbon steel in 2 M HCl solution was studied by electrochemical methods; polarization and impedance spectroscopy measurements, while weight loss of the carbon steel at varying temperatures and gasometric method was studied. The results of the study revealed that D. mespiliformis mitigates the corrosion of carbon steel (FE164531) in HCl solution through adsorption. Results from Tafel plots suggest that Diospyros mespiliformis (DM) behaves predominantly as a cathodic inhibitor with highest inhibition efficiency (91%) at 1000 ppm. The Nyquist and Bode plots of the test solutions were similar in both inhibited and free medium and contained capacitive and inductive loops. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that D. mespiliformis is adsorbed on carbon steel mainly by physical adsorption. The values of enthalpy and entropy of adsorption suggests that DM adsorption on FE164531 surface was spontaneous. A good correlation was obtained following the percentage inhibition efficiencies calculated from all the techniques employed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Effect of Vitamin C and Curcumin on Oxidative Stress and Skin Lesion Induced by Dermal Intoxication with Cypermethrin

Manal E. A. Elhalwagy, A. A. Nahas, Reem M. Ziada, Hoda E. A. Farid

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17285

Aim: Dermal exposure to pyrethroids produces adverse health effect on different body systems. This study examined the effect of simultaneous oral supplementation of curcumin and vitamin C on   systemic and skin injuries induced by dermal intoxication with cypermethrin.   

Experimental Design: Four groups of rats treated for 28 days, -ve control, +ve control (curcumin 200 mg/Kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/Kg), Pesticide (cypermethrin (1/25 LD50 = 200 mg/Kg) on shaved  skin of rats and  pesticide and antioxidant (rats dermally intoxicated with cypermethrin (1/25 LD50 = 200 mg/Kg) and supplemented orally with (curcumin  200 mg/Kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/Kg).

Results: Dermal intoxicated rats with cypermethrin (1/25 LD50 = 200 mg/Kg) showed  Inhibition in ATPase enzyme  in serum, liver and brain associated with Induction of oxidative stress biomarkers malodialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl in serum, liver but not in brain, concomitant with significant reduction in defense system serum SH-protein and reduced glutathione in liver and brain. As well as significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione -S- transferees (GST) and catalase in serum, liver and brain. Penetration of cypermethrin through skin of treated rats induced necrosis and scales formation in the superficial layer of the epidermis of animals associated with inflammatory cells. 

Conclusion: Simultaneous Supplementation with curcumin and vitamin C orally improved the alteration in the above mentioned parameters. However it failed to counteract the injures in the skin. Finally dermal exposure to pyrethroids threat the health of exposed subjects and needs long time in retrieve their health.


Open Access Original Research Article

Solvent and Methyl Group Effects on the Electronic Spectral Properties of Azo-2-Naphthol Dye

Victor N. Mkpenie, Emmanuel E. Essien

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17260

The influence of solvent polarity on the absorption pattern of azo-2-naphthol dyes,1-(4-methylphenylazo)-2-naphthol (MPAN) and 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (PAN) have been studied using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer in polar and non-polar solvents. Analysis of the spectral data obtained revealed two types of effects - the polar effect (tPE) and the non-polar effect (tNPE) - exhibited when polar and non-polar solvents are used respectively. These effects can affect differently, the direction of shift in the wavelength (λmax) of electronic absorption of azo-2-naphthol dyes bathochromically or hypsochromically. Linear solvation energy relationships (LSER) have been used to quantify the interactions between solvents and dyes. The overall solute-solvent interaction had contributions from polarizability/dipolarity, hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) abilities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Fluorescence Binding Assay of Atl1 Protein with the SIMA Labelled Oligonucleotide Containing the Tricyclic Nucleoside Analogue of O6-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine

Kabir Abdu, David M. Williams

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17369

The synthesis of phosphoramidite (DNA building block) containing the tricyclic nucleoside analogue of O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine was carried out and its Interactions with Atl proteins was quantified through fluorescent assay (fluorescent intensity monitoring). In fluorescent assay the interaction of DNA with protein is quantified by measuring the dissociation constant, KD. Usually the DNA is labelled with fluorophore (such as FAM, HEX or SIMA) which acts as a probe during the binding titration. Binding of protein to DNA substrate that is fluorescently labelled can cause changes in the fluorescent signal to that label since its interaction with protein changes its chemical environment from that in free solution. In this assay a series of fluorescent measurements were taken whilst increasing the amount of protein relative to the DNA. The binding curves were generated by plotting protein concentration against fluorescent intensity and the data were fitted by the non-linear least-squares regression using Kaleida Graph (I = Imax + [ (D+E+KD) – ( (D+E+KD)2 – (4DE) )0.5]    (Imin - Imax)/2D). The ODN containing the tricyclic analogue bound poorly with the Atl 1 protein with the KD = 194±29. The syntheses of the ODN with the modification at the O6-position as well as the florescence assay were reported here.