Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on Tensile Properties of Polymer Composite Based on Polypropylene, Polyamide Fiber and Carbon Black

Abduel Majid K. Najjar, Adnan Agieli A. Aboulgasemb

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18003

Polymer composites are important class of materials. Some of these composite composites display tremendous mechanical properties. The combination of artificial fiber with polypropylene matrix has affected its matrix mechanical properties. The main objective of this work was to study the tensile properties of the polymer composite made from polypropylene, carbon black powder and polyamide fiber. The composite sheets were prepared using hot press compression method at different processing temperatures and period of times. The composite chemical composition was varied by changing the components weight percentage. Tensile test was used to evaluate the effects of the processing temperature, time and the chemical composition. The results indicated that the processing temperature has enhanced the maximum force at yield, tensile stress, breaking force and elongation at break while processing time and carbon black powder content have reverse effects except for the elongation at break for carbon content. The optimum fiber content to achieve the maximum force, tensile stress and break force was 12.29%. Elongation at break was also increased when carbon black powder and fiber contents increased to 0.175% and 9.22%, respectively. It was clearly that the application of polyamide fiber in polypropylene composite has influenced the tensile properties of polypropylene composite.


Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Components of Heroin Seized in Kuwait by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

N. A. Alabkal, E. Kh. Metwally, M. H. Elnagdi, F. I. Aldosery, N. S. Abbas

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18001

Aim: To identify the main and additive components of heroin trafficked in the State of Kuwait, and to provide a satisfactory explanation for the increase in deaths among heroin addicts.

Study Design: Selected samples of non-pure powder heroin seized in Kuwait and a set of pure heroin standards have been analyzed in the State Forensic Laboratories.

Place and Duration of Study: All analyses were conducted during 2012–2014 in the Forensic Laboratories of the General Department of Criminal Evidences – Ministry of Interior – State of Kuwait.

Methodology: A total of fifty samples of non-pure powder heroin seized in Kuwait during the year 2012 and ten pure standards have been analyzed by using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

Results: The concentration % of the diacetylmorphine in Kuwait is in the range of (20-40%) and is much less than that manufactured (Her) in Afghanistan and Southeast Asia (concentration% (67-80%) and (85-95%) respectively. All heroin samples contain papaverine, noscapine, acetylcodaine and 6-mono-acetylmorphine with range proportion 0-40%, 2-38%, 4-40% and 4-40%, respectively. However, morphine has not been detected in all samples. The additive substances (adulterants) have been detected in heroin samples in various percentage concentrations with the following range concentrations %: caffeine % 0.54-16%, diazepam 0.02-7.3%, and in some samples: paracetamol (acetaminophen) 0-21.4%, (phenobarbital) 0-74% and (Alprazolam) 0-46.2% (new additive).

Conclusion: The illicit heroin trafficked in Kuwait as diacetylmorphine has concentrations ranging from 20% to 40%, and its main components include papaverine, noscapine, 6-mono-acetylmorphine and acetylcodaine, while morphine is absent. In addition a number of additive substances have been recorded, including paracetamol (acetaminophen), caffeine, diazepam, phenobarbital and Alprazolam as new additive substance.

The similarity between the additives identified in heroin under study and those recorded in heroin manufactured in Afghanistan and Iran would suggest that the mixed heroin in the two countries are possible sources of heroin seized in Kuwait.


Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition Behaviour and Adsorption Characteristics of Dapsone Derivatives on Mild Steel in Acid Medium

M. P. Chakravarthy, K. N. Mohana, C. B. Pradeep Kumar, A. M. Badiea

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18211

Two newly synthesized Dapsone derivatives viz., 3-[(4-{4-[(1H-Indol-3-ylmethylene)-amino]-benzenesulfonyl}-phenylimino)-methyl]-1H-indole (IABPI) and 5-[(4-{4-[(Thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-amino]-benzenesulfonyl}-phenylimino)-methyl]-thiophene (TABPT) were investigated as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 media by using chemical and electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicated that these two inhibitors behaved as mixed type. These inhibitors were found to obey Langmuir isotherm model. Using this isotherm, thermodynamic adsorption parameters were evaluated. EIS studies showed that the polarization resistance (RP) and double layer capacitance (Cdl) of the inhibitors are concentration dependent. FTIR technique was used to identify the interaction of inhibitor with mild steel surface, whereas persistency of thin protective film of inhibitors on the mild steel surface was carried out by using EDX and SEM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetic Studies of Bio-sorption of Cyanide Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Carbon Black Developed from Shea Butter Seed Husk as an Adsorbent

D. Y. Tsunatu, U. H. Taura, E. U. Jirah

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17636

This research work was conducted in order to investigate the adsorption of cyanide ions by carbon black developed from Shea Butter Seed Husk (SBSH) an eco-friendly bio-adsorbent. The experiments were carried out in batch reactors with optimum operating parameters at 100 mg/l for the initial cyanide concentration, Temperature 30±2ºC, pH value 10, Adsorbent Dosage (3.0 mg/100 ml) and Contact Time of 120 minutes with maximum percentage cyanide ion removal at 94.56%. The values for the amount of cyanide ions adsorbed at equilibrium (qe) and amount adsorbed at a given time (qt) of the experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir, Halsey – Taylor (Freundlich), Henry and Slygin – Frumkin (Temkin) isotherm models with Henry Adsorption Isotherm having R2=0.966, hence, best described the equilibrium model. Adsorption of cyanide ions by SBSH Carbon Black obeyed the Pseudo-Second Order Model rate equation with the values of Coefficient of Determination; R2=0.999. Qe=3.257(mg/g) and k2=0.093(g/mg/min). Therefore, it was observed that Pseudo-Second Order Model was the best applicable model which described the bio-sorption of cyanide ions by SBSH Carbon Black, making Pseudo Second order kinetic reaction the rate limiting step for the batch reaction process.


Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Pharmacologically Important Some Novel Pyrimidine and Chalcone Moieties Containing s-triazines

Anupama ., Bhawani Singh

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18654

s-Triazines containing heterocycles have variety of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory activities. Various heterocycles have been synthesized by annellation methodology using chalcones as base template. A new series of 2-aminopyrimidine substituted chalcones have been synthesized by the temperature controlled reaction of s-triazines. 4,6-Dichloro-N-(pyrimidine-2-yl)-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine and its various derivatives were synthesized at different temperatures. These were further treated with pyridine-2-aldehydes to furnish corresponding chalcones and the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. s-Traizine containing chalcones have been used as base framework to synthesized five-, six- and seven-membered heterocycles through annellation methodology.


Open Access Original Research Article

FT-IR, TGA, DSC and PCM Characterization of Synthesised 1-Vinyl-1,2,4-Triazole Proton Exchange Membranes (PEMS) for Use in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCS)

Shamsu Ahmad, Iliyasu Aliyu Bashir

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18669

Aim: To synthesize a polymer electrolyte membranes with semi interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) structures consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole-co-divinyl benzene) (P(VTri-co-DVB)) and to characterized by FT-IR spectroscopic analysis, thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA), proton conductivity measurement and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Study Design: Synthesizing anhydrous electrolyte membranes, cheaper than DuPont’s Nafion, and with high proton conductivities at elevated temperatures.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey. Between September 2013 to January 2014.

Methodology: The methodology employed is the in situ synthesis, whereby all reactants are mixed before the triggering the polymerization or cross-linking reaction.

Results: The synthesized membranes, PVDF/P(VTri-co-DVB)/TA, were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal stability of the samples was investigated using TGA. The TGA plots of PVDF/P(VTri-co-DVB)/TA membranes with two different PVDF contents showed a satisfactory thermal stability up to 320°C and 340°C. As PVDF content was doubled, thermal stability slightly increased as expected.

Conclusion: Polymer electrolyte membranes with semi interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) structures consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), poly (1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole-co-divinyl benzene) (P(VTri-co-DVB)), and triflic acid (TA) were successfully fabricated in one pot and in a single step.