Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Tubers Grown in a Lead-zinc Derelict Mine and their Significance to Health and Phytoremediation

J. O. Oti Wilberforce

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18543

Four common tubers namely Colocosia and Xanthosama (Cocoa yam), Manihol eaculenhis (Cassava), Dioscoreu rolundata (White Yam) and Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato) were grown within Enyigba lead-zinc derelict and samples of their leaves (aerial part) and roots (underground part) alongside the soil where they were grown were analyzed for heavy metal using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The results revealed that heavy metals in soil (mean pH = 6.5±0.29) decreased in the order Pb > Zn > Cu > Mn > Cd > Ni > As > Cr. The mean concentration (mg/kg) of heavy metals in soil was found in the range of Pb (0.01-0.41); As (0.02-0.54): Cd (0.02-0.12); Cu (0.82-62.12); Cr (0.01-0.40); Zn (24.18-122.12); (Mn 18.46-624.26) and Ni (8.24-34.66). The results revealed that levels of Pb in white yam (0.41 mg/kg) and cassava (0.32 mg/kg); As in cassava (0.54 mg/kg), white yam (0.12 mg/kg) and sweet potato (0.14 mg/kg) and Cd in cocoyam (0.12 mg/kg) all exceeded the World health Organisation Maximum Limit (WHO ML) and thus they are unfit for human consumption. High value of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) observed for Mn in cassava (1.78) as well as high values of Translocation Factor (TF) observed in sweet potatoes for cadmium (2.0) and copper (1.47); in cocoyam for cadmium (1.2) and also in cassava for chromium (1.25) and zinc (1.13) suggest that the affected tubers were potential hyperaccumulators. The variation in the parameters determined were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05) as determined by one way analysis of variance.


Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Oxidation of Phthalmic Drug Timolol by Peroxodisulfate

Raed A. Ghanem

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18782

The oxidation of morpholine-thiadiazol based structure ophthalmic beta blocker drug, Timolol, in the presence of Potassium Perxodisulfate (PDS) and 40% methanol-water has been studied using spectrophotometric method. It has been found that; oxidation reaction starts with electrophilic attack of PDS species on the protonated form of Timolol leading to produce three products (I,II and III) one of them retains the morpholne-thiadiazole structure (I). The products were characterized as (I) 4-morpholino-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ol, (II) 3-(carboxy diformylmethylamino)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid and (III) 2-(2-formyl-2-hydroxyethylamino)-2,2-diformylacetic acid. The detailed mechanism of the oxidation reaction was proposed, and thermodynamic parameters were obtained for different reaction steps.


Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Studies on Nuclei Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Molecular Orbitals and Geometry Optimization of Antidiabetic Drug, N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic Diamide (Metformin)

I. E. Otuokere, C. O. Alisa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18463

N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidicdiamide (Metformin) is an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function. The in silico nuclear resonance magnetic spectroscopy of metformin was performed using ACD/I-lab. The chemical shifts of the methyl protons labelled 6 and 7 appeared as a singlet at 3.03 ppm while the chemical shifts of the amino protons labelled 3, 5, 10 and 11 appeared as a singlet at position 10.16, 6.66, 8.57 and 8.38 ppm respectively. The methyl carbons at 6 and 7 positions showed chemical shift at 38.77 ppm while the imine carbons showed chemical shifts at 158.20 and 159.10 ppm. All conformational analysis (geometry optimization) study was performed on a window based computer using Argus lab software. The metformin structure was generated by Argus lab, and minimization was performed with the semi-empirical Parametric Method 3 (PM3). The minimum potential energy was calculated by geometry convergence function in Argus lab software. Surfaces were created to visualize highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and electrostatic potentials (ESP) mapped density. The minimum potential energy calculated using geometry convergence function in Argus lab software was found to be 41.537840 kcal/mol. This energy minimum is the most stable conformation of the molecule.


Open Access Original Research Article

Renal Protective Effect of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Gongronema latifolium Benth in Acetaminophen-induced Renal Toxicity in Male Albino Rats

Chinedu Imo, Friday O. Uhegbu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18881

Aim: To evaluate the renal protective effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium Benth in acetaminophen-induced renal toxicity in albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria, between October 2014 and January 2015.

Methodology: Fifty male albino rats aged 7 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly placed into five (5) groups with ten (10) rats in each group. The administration of the leaf extract and acetaminophen were made through oral intubation. The animals were sacrificed, the biochemical parameters and histological analysis of the kidney accessed.

Results: Creatinine, serum urea and electrolytes: sodium and potassium increased significantly (compared with control) after the administration of acetaminophen only, but reduced significantly (p≤0.05) in all groups administered both the leaf extract and acetaminophen, except potassium which reduced non-significantly (from 12.33±0.45 to 11.94±0.56 mEq/L) in the group administered 200 mg/kg of the leaf extract (group 3) when compared with the negative control. Creatinine, serum urea, sodium and potassium reduced from 1.43±0.07 to 1.10±0.07 mg/dl, 40.65±1.57 to 28.22±1.39 mg/dl, 145.33±2.88 to 139.55±0.93 mEq/L and 12.33±0.45 to 9.72±0.40 mEq/L respectively in the group administered 600 mg/kg of leaf extract. Chloride decreased significantly after the administration of acetaminophen only (compared with control), but increased significantly (p≤0.05) in all groups administered both the leaf extract and acetaminophen (when compared with the negative control). Chloride increased from 107.07±0.68 to 111.64±0.49 mEq/L in the group administered 600 mg/kg of leaf extract. The histological analysis of the Kidney section of rat treated with 1000 mg/kg b.wt of Acetaminophen (APAP) only show shrunken glomeruli and marked necrosis and sloughing of collecting ducts, but administration of the extract and APAP showed that the extract had a protective effect when compared with the effected kidney.

Conclusion: These results indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Gongronema latifolium Benth has protective effect on the kidney and can be used against some renal inflammations.


Open Access Original Research Article

Regioselectivity in the Multicomponent Reaction of 5-aminopyrazoles, Meldrum’s Acid and Triethyl Orthoformate

Afaf M. Abdel Hameed, Ahmed Moukhtar Nour-Eldin, Michael Magdy Ibrahim, Kamal Usef Sadek

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/18903

A regioselective multicomponent synthesis of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimdines-7(4H)-ones 5 is  reported.  The  reaction  proceeded regioselectively via initial Michael addition of exocyclic amino function to the intermediately formed 5-ethoxymethylene Meldrum’s acid followed by a ring opening of Meldrum’s acid and subsequent ring closure with the ring nitrogen. The regioselectivity of the reaction was confirmed by the isolation and characterization of the Michael adduct.


Open Access Original Research Article

Clinoptilolite Assisted Persulfate Decolorization of a Raw Textile Wastewater

Fagbenro Oluwakemi Kehinde, Hamidi Abdul Aziz

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/19303

Textile wastewater is strong colored and contributes immensely to water pollution if not appropriately treated. However, it is hard to treat by the conventional biological methods if applied singly, hence, the application of a physicochemical technique for the treatment was proposed in this study. Clinoptilolite (CPL) was used in combination with persulfate (PS) as an activator, to catalyze and improve the persulfate oxidation of raw textile wastewater in the process of decolorization. The influence of variation of CPL dosages, initial pH and contact times were investigated when a predetermined persulfate dosage of 4/1(g/g) was used. The system investigated was effective in reducing the residual color concentration by 96% when the initial pH of 4 was applied over a 420 minutes contact time and the CPL and PS dosages of 6/1 and 4/1 were used respectively.