Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics and Thermal Degradation of Powder-free Laboratory Examination Gloves by Thermogravimetric Analysis at 333°C and 422°C

Nasrollah Hamidi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/19024

The kinetics of thermolysis of laboratory safety gloves (LG), was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at two consecutive isotherm temperatures: 333°C, and 422°C as well as two thermal scan between these two temperatures. Three methods were used to evaluate the kinetics parameters related to the decomposition of LG at 333°C and 422°C isotherms. The results of the study indicate that many zeroth order reactions were occurred, simultaneously. The thermolysis at 333°C fitted better in a second order reaction, while the data at 422°C were not fit to a given order directly. The TGA data at 422°C also fit in a surface decomposition model since the initial reaction order was one and as the reaction progressed the order reached near to zero. The TGA data at 333°C were not fit to this model directly since the surface was saturate before reaching to the isotherm temperature. The activation energy of thermalizes (Ea) from thermal scan was estimated; it was below the amount of C-Cl standard bond energy.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Quantitative Evaluation of Nutritional Values of Zingiber officinale (Ginger)

V. N. Osabor, F. I. Bassey, U. U. Umoh

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16915

Phytochemical screening, proximate, mineral elements, and antinutritional composition of Zingiber officinale rhizome were determined with a view to assess it nutritional and medicinal values. The results of phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, polyphenols, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars were present in both the aqueous extract (AE) and petroleum ether extract (PEE). While tannins, phlobatannins, anthranoids, hydroxyl anthroquinones and anthraquinones were absent in both aqueous extract (AE) and petroleum ether extract (PEE).The results of the proximate analysis showed that the rhizorne of Zingiber officinale contains 28.20±0.42% moisture, 4.20±0.01% ash, 4.00±0.01% lipids, 0.53±0.01% protein, 10.60±0.12% fibre and 80.60±0.16% carbohydrate. The results of proximate analysis revealed that Zingiber officinale rhizome is rich in carbohydrate but low in protein contents. The mineral elements composition in mg/100g revealed the following compositions: sodium (3.12±0.16), calcium (4.76±0.17), iron (2.82±0.11), chromium (1.55±0.09), lead (0.05±0.01), nickel (0.07±0.02), mercury (0.02±0.01) and cadmium (0.37±0.08). The mineral elements composition of Zingiber officinale revealed the presence of moderate amount of calcium which is a good source for strong teeths and bones formation but very low in lead and mercury which are toxic mineral elements. The Phytochemical screening revealed that Zingiber officinale have good secondary plants metabolites which justify its therapeutic utility.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Isolation of 5, 7-dihydroxy-3/, 4/-Dimethoxy Flavone from the Leaves of Cassia alata

Md. Siddiqur Rahman, Mst. Sarmina Yeasmin, Kamonasish Das, Md. Saifur Rahman

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17522

Studies were carried out on the leaves of Cassia alata. A new isoflavone 5, 7- dihydroxy-3/, 4/-dimethoxy flavone was isolated from the leaves of Cassia alata with the help of column and thin layer chromatography using a gradient of organic solvents with increasing polarity. The compound was characterized on the basis of UV, IR, 1HNMR, 13C-NMR and Mass spectrometry.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics and Entropy Production of Force-induced Oligomeric Enzyme Catalysis in a Single Trajectory: Effect of Multiple Substrates

Anita Gangopadhyay, Biswajit Das, Kinshuk Banerjee, Gautam Gangopadhyay

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17117

Here we have estimated the macroscopic entropy production for a mechanical force induced single oligomeric enzyme Kinetics with multiple substrate in a chemiostatic condition. This result is supported by the calculation of the single trajectory approach of forward and reverse path as a tool of stochastic thermodynamics. Through the approach for a particular reaction channel in the forward trajectory and the corresponding reverse reaction channel in the backward trajectory we explored the contribution of each and every sub-reactions or channels to the overall enzymatic processes and made the trajectory analysis of multiple kind of substrates. We have calculated the individual contribution of each sub-reaction in the overall medium entropy production which is exactly valid in the non-equilibrium steady state and it can give an insight about the mechanism of a complex chemical reaction in presence of an applied mechanical force on oligomeric enzyme kinetics.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Vital Organs of Cows and Bulls at Jimeta Abattoir, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

C. Milam, B. J. Dimas, A. L. Jang, J. E. Enech

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17012

The recent widespread concern in human health due to the consumption of food product of animal origin has necessitated the need to monitor the level of heavy metal in animal tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) in the heart, intestine, stomach, kidney and liver of cattle from Yola abattoir in Yola Metropolis, Adamawa State, Nigeria, by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The levels of heavy metals in the heart, intestine, stomach, kidney and liver ranged from 1.91±0.00 to 3.96±0.00 mg/kg Zn; 0.15±0.00 to 0.17±0.00 mg/kg Pb; 0.20±0.00 to 1.98±0.00 mg/kg Cu; 0.03±0.00 to 0.27±0.00 mg/kg Cd; and 0.00±0.02 to 0.00±0.00 mg/kg Co; on average. The highest concentration of zinc and copper were found in the liver while lead is deposited more in the kidney and heart. Cadmium was found to be concentrated in the kidney, while cobalt was not detected in most of the tissues. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test on the concentrations of all the metals in the heart, intestine, stomach, kidney, and liver resulted in (p>0.05), i.e. there is no significant difference in the amount of the elements in this samples. The concentrations of all the metals were low and within the international statutory safe limits.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Offshore Topside Rotating Packed Bed as Process Intensified Alternative for Natural Gas Sweetening and Dehydration

Adegboyega Bolu Ehinmowo, Aliyu M. Aliyu, Solomon O. Alagbe, Oyewole Adedipe, Olufunke Olumi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/19157

This work is aimed at investigating the benefits of replacing conventional process unit operations with process intensified ones in offshore applications. This ensures that better use is made of raw materials, lower energy consumption and a reduced plant volume was achieved. Specifically, a rotating packed bed technology has been used for gas dehydration and sweetening. To achieve the aim of this study, a process intensification approach is used to redesign mature absorption processes to more compact and efficient one. Process simulation using Aspen Hysys was carried out for Triethylene glycol dehydration and monoethanolamine sweetening. More than 36-fold absorption unit size reduction was achieved thereby effecting large decrease in capital and operating costs compared to the conventional packed columns currently utilized in the offshore oil and gas industry. The process intensified technologies therefore can be deployed for offshore applications where space and size considerations are of utmost importance.