Open Access Short Research Article

The Influence on Microstructure of Hap/Cs-CMC Composite Materials in vitro Soaking

Mande Qiu, Pan Yang, Miao Niu, Aimei Dai, Yidan Wang

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20053

The Hap/Cs-CMC (Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose) composite materials with different mass ratio were firstly prepared by liquid co-precipitation method. According to preliminary results, the mass ratio of 50/50 (Hap/Cs-CMC) composite material was selected as the research object. The microstructure, phase and component of surface of the composite material were investigated via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time. The purpose was to comparatively investigate these changes based on the degradation behavior and calcium deposition in the physiological solution. The results showed that the phase structure of composite material was relatively stable in SBF solution, and the microstructure of surface had been changed at immersion time period. These changes indicated that the process of ion-exchange, dissolving, deposition, re-crystallization happened between the composite materials and inside of the SBF solution. In addition, the pH value of SBF solution kept basically stable and did not exhibit much variation, and EDS results showed there are some new additional elements (Mg, K, Cl, S, etc) in composite material after materials soaking in SBF solution. The ion-exchange, dissolving, deposition, re-crystallization process occurred on the surface firstly and these processes tended to equilibrium with the increase of soaking time, which generated the Ca/P ratio of Hap/Cs-CMC composite materials maintained unchanged.


Open Access Original Research Article

Modulatory Role of Zinc Chloride on Cadmium Chloride-induced Histological Changes in Tongue Papillae of Rats

Souzan El Amy, Badr Al-Jandan, Aiman A. Ali

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/19626

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is recognized as one of the most toxic heavy metals with very strong accumulation. In dentistry, Cd may be released from dentures, intraoral alloys. Some strategies have been postulated to neutralize heavy metal intoxication such as zinc supplementation. The aim of this research project was to investigate the effect of Cd on tongue papillae of rats, and the possible modulatory role of zinc.

Materials and Methods: In vivo study was carried out on forty adult male Albino rats. All the animals were maintained on standard laboratory diet, rats were divided into four equal groups:    GI:  Rats were drinking purified water for 6 months. GII: Zinc was given in aque­ous solutions of zinc chloride for the same period as group I. GIII: Rats were receiving Cd also in the form of aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride for the same period as the other groups. GIV: Rats were receiving similar cadmium treatment as group III along with zinc treatment as group II. After 6 months, rats were sacrificed and tongue was studied under light microscope using routine H&E stain.

Results: Results of this study demonstrated that 70%, 70%, 50%, 30%, 70%, and 70% of the total cases of group III revealed abnormal shape of filiform papillae, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, epithelial dysplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration with dilation of blood vessels respectively, while all cases (100%) in group I and II showed normal histological features. These Differences were statistically significant (p<0.005). Cases in group IV showed abnormal shape of filiform papillae (70%) without any changes at the cell level in the epithelium and the connective tissue.

Conclusion: Cadmium chloride may cause histopathological changes on the tongue mucosa of rats. While zinc chloride may prevent histopathological cell changes. 


Open Access Original Research Article

Research of Affection of Iron Nanoparticles on Chemical Indicators and Rheological Parameters of Waxy Crude Oil

E. M. Gojaev, E. A. Mammadov, A. Sh. Aliyeva

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/17830

The study presented dependence of densities, dynamic and kinematic viscosity coefficients, surface tension and thermal expansion coefficients of paraffin oil from operating oil wells on temperature range 290-350 K and and concentration of the iron nanoparticle- 100 nm.

It was found that the addition of paraffin oil production of 0.01% when the dynamic and kinematic viscosity ratios of iron nanoparticle and surface tension coefficient decreases sharply and at the further increase the amount of nanoparticle these parameters remain unchanged.

The study will be prepared for paraffin oil using magnetic mixer mechanically mixed for half an hour, an hour and then washed them largely for research nanoparticle 100 nm sized iron is added in the same manner mix half an hour, gets ready for the sample after being 4 hrs.


Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Methylene Blue Using Cellulose Nanocrystal Synthesized from Cotton by Ultrasonic Technique

Ismail Ibrahim (Al-Khateeb), Yusra M. Al-Obaidi, Sabri M. Hussin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20031

This investigation was concern to study the removal of methylene blue pollutants from aqueous solution using cellulose nanocrystal synthesized from cotton. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using adsorption models of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated using adsorption process on an cellulose nanocrystal for the methylene blue solution at three different temperatures. It was found that a cellulose at nano level has a very significant adsorption for methylene blue compared to that of bulk cellulose. The results showed that the model isotherms are fitting very well with the experimental data. The specific adsorption percentage of methylene blue was highly affected by addition of nano cellulose and decreasing with temperature compared to that of control sample. It has been found that the adsorption percentage was increased by increasing the methylene blue concentrations, and these values indicated that the methylene blue adsorption onto nano cellulose was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. 

All values of Gibbs functions were negative with values of -15 and -17 kJmol-1 for 60% acid sonicaed for 120 min and 30% acid for the same time of sonification respectively, while values of enthalpy and entropy were about -5 kJmol-1 and 54 JK-1mol-1 for cellulose nanocrystal respectively. These results indicated that the adsorption process was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic.


Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Pollutions and Its Associated Ecological Risks in Lagos Lagoon Sediments, South-western Nigeria

Ajani Gloria Ekaete, Oshisanya Khaphilah Ibironke, Popoola Samuel Olatunde, Oyeleke Peter Olaoye

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20334

This study investigate the origin of heavy metal pollution and its associated ecological risks to the surrounding aquatic ecosystems in the Lagos Lagoon. Sediments samples from twelve selected stations, that covers the; Southern, central and North-Eastern segments of Lagos Lagoon were analysed for levels of selected heavy metals i.e, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni over a 3 month period. Six Pollution indices were applied in assessing the pollution status of heavy metals in sediments. These comprised; three single pollution indices (The Contamination Factor, Ecological Risk Factor and Enrichment Factor) and three integrated pollution indices (Average Pollution Index, Ecological Risk Index and Nemerow Pollution Index). Heavy metal concentrations in the Lagos Lagoon sediments range from; Ni (Bdl-17.55 mg/kg), Mn (12.5-1180.25 mg/kg), Pb (Bdl-27.04 mg/kg), Zn (Bdl-543.33 mg/kg), Cu (Bdl-35.55 mg/kg), Cr (Bdl-220.53 mg/kg) and Fe (832.64-19722.80 mg/kg) respectively. The respective nutrients values in the sediments ranges are; nitrate (0.10-1.16 mg/kg), phosphate (1.61-6.61 mg/kg), silicate (1.77-63.55 mg/kg), total organic matter (0.27-4.35 mg/kg) and total organic carbon (0.15-2.45 mg/kg).The average metal concentrations were compared with its respective background values, using the Average shale contents (ASC) thus; Zn, Pb and Mn exhibited elevated concentrations above the ASC at; Iddo, Okobaba, Ijora and Majidun segments of Lagos Lagoon and are moderately to severely contaminated. It also demonstrates a dominant anthropogenic origin to all analysed heavy metals with the exception of Iron. However, the integrated pollution indices affirmed a low ecological risk index to the aquatic ecosystem of the Lagos Lagoon. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC) displayed a high percentage values in the aforementioned stations and correlated significantly with nitrate concentrations in the sediments of Lagos Lagoon. The Nemerow pollution index revealed that the heavy metals conditions in the Lagos Lagoon sediments are in a precautionary state. This call for a quick and efficient control measures to be put in place to safeguard the aquatic biota in the Lagos Lagoon.


Open Access Original Research Article

Ultrasonic Degradation of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP): Effect of Power of Ultrasound, Temperature and Concentration

Mohammad Taghi Taghizadeh, Reza Abdollahi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/16508

The ultrasonic degradation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was carried out in a range of different concentration of polymer solution to investigate on the changes of molecular weights. Also the ultrasonic degradation at different temperatures and power of ultrasound (30-150 W) was investigated. Most of the effects involved in controlling molecular weight can be attributed to the large shear gradients and shock waves generated around collapsing cavitation bubbles. The calculated rate constants indicated that the degradation rate of the PVP solutions decreased as the temperature increased. The average molecular weight of ultrasonicated PVP was determined by measurements of relative viscosity of samples. The degradation rate of this polymer was followed by a kinetic model based on viscosity measurements. Rate constants of ultrasonic degradation were calculated, and the results showed their dependence on polymer concentration.