Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation into the Wound Healing Activity of Monodora myristica and Monodora tenuifolia Seed Extracts in Albino Rats

Ibironke A. Ajayi, Adewale A. Raji, Adonai R. Umeh

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/19876

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Monodora myristica and Monodora tenuifolia are among the plants that are been used by traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria. They have been used extensively for the treatment of various ailments. The parts of these plants have some medicinal values and are being used in different regions of Nigeria for wound healing, but the scientific proof of wound healing activity of these plant parts and plant seeds are lacking, hence, this is a necessary to have a validate record of the medicinal uses of M. myristica and M. tenuifolia seeds to expand their use to include integration into modern medical healthcare systems. In this study an attempt was made to validate the ethno-medicinal uses of M. myristica and M. tenuifolia seeds through botanical identification and biological assessment of their value as complementary medicine for treatment of wound in rats.

Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried out to known the various phytoconstituents in the extracts of M. myritica and M. tenuifolia seeds. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were examined on multiple drug resistant bacteria viz: S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis, P. aeroginosa and fungi viz: C. albicans, A. niger using agar the technique of well diffusion and method of broth dilution. The wound healing effect of seeds of M. myristica and M. tenuifolia were studied by incorporating the extracts into paraffin in concentrations of 5% and 10% w/w. Wound healing activities of the extracts were studied by determining the wound area (mm2), percentage of wound closure, period of epithelialisation and histological analysis of the control and test groups.

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, reducing sugar, terpenoids, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids in M. myristica seed extract while tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids were detected in that of M. tenuifolia. The extract of M. myristica seeds showed significant activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis having the same MIC value of 50 mg/ml, P. aeroginosa and A. niger with MIC value of 100 mg/ml, E. coli and C. albican having an MIC value of 200 mg/ml while MIC value of 50 mg/ml was recorded for E. coli, A. niger and P. aeroginosa, 100 mg/ml for S. aureus and 200 mg/ml for B. subtilis and C. albican using M. tenuifolia seed extract. A profound wound healing effect was noticed for M. tenuifolia seed extract. This is confirmed that the seed extract of M. tenuifolia has a better wound healing capacity than that of M. myristica as it was revealed from the experimental values of the wound closure area, improved tissue regeneration at the wound site observed through the daily monitoring and histopathological parameters related to the healing of the wound.

Conclusion: The results affirmed the ethnomedicinal application of M. myristica and M. tenuifolia seeds for wound healing.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation on the Application of Immobilized Stereospermum kunthianum Stem-bark for the Removal of Pd2+, Cd2+, Cr2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ in Aqueous Solution

S. A. Osemeahon, J. T. Barminas, G. M. Saljaba

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/21516

This research studied the sorption capacity of Stereospermum kunthianum plant for the removal of heavy metal ions from waste water. The plant stem-bark was immobilized by entrapping or caging the bio-sorbent within a polymeric matrix of calcium- alginate to produce immobilized stem-bark (IMSB). The sorption efficiencies of heavy metals (Zn2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ and Cr2+) were investigated in aqueous solution using the IMSB and the residual metal ions in solution was determined using atomic absorption  spectrophotometer (AAS). The effect of various parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, initial metal ion concentration and temperature variation on the sorption of the above metal ions were investigated using batch experiments. The result obtained showed that the sorption efficiencies of Zn2+, Pb2+, Cr2+, Cd2+, Mn2+ and  Fe2+ by IMSB were  91.60%, 97.85%, 78.46%, 85.08%, 65.20%, and 78.52% respectively. Result also shows that metal ion sorption increases with increase in contact time; initial metal ion concentration and increase in pH, and decreases with increase in temperature and ionic strength. In view of the above result, the abundant but presently wasted Stereospermum kunthianum plant can be used as a low-cost sorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions in waste water.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Aluminum Bioavailable and Nutrient and Aluminum Uptake in Hibiscus sabdariffa under Effect of Gypsum Fertilization

Jean Aubin Ondo, Alain Bissielou Koumba, Bertrand Ngou Akue, Estimé Rolant Ngodoua, Richard Menye Biyogo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20508

The rural exodus and immigration contribute to the development of urban agriculture in developing countries. The unsuitable practices of this intensive farming contribute reduce soil fertility. The result is the decline in crop yields and depletion of the resource base. The aim of this study was to assess the gypsum application in acid soil on available aluminum and the combined or not effect of gypsum application and aluminum in soil solution on aluminum, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in roots and leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. A pot experiment was led by calcium as gypsum amendments in different levels. Al concentration in soil solution rapidly decreased significantly below the toxicity threshold value. The gypsum application was a good amendment for Al level decreasing, particularly in roots, and an increase of Ca, Mg and P levels in Hibiscus sabdariffa, exception of Mg in roots and P in leaves. The effect of both gypsum application and Al in soil solution showed a significant decrease of Mg in the roots of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Institutional Factors and Attitude on the Use of Herbicides by Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria

I. O. Uddin, I. A. Enwelu, E. M. Igbokwe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/21624

The study was conducted to determine the influence of institutional factors and attitude on the use of herbicides by farmers in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was descriptive and experimental. Multistage sampling technique was used. Thus the total sample size for the study was one hundred and twenty (120) respondents. Data was analyzed and presented using percentage, mean statistic and standard deviation respectively. Hypothesis for the study was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression with a p≤0.05 level of significance. Majority (90.8%) of the respondents were members of different social organizations with thrift (isusu) society ranking highest (50.8%). Farmers in the study were concerned about the harmful effects of herbicides on the environment ( = 3.70) as such were of the view that alternative weed pest control should be considered ( = 3.78). Extension contact, access to credit and membership of social organization have significant influence on herbicide use. Based on the findings and conclusion, it is recommended among others, that policy makers, extension agents, NGOs and related organizations should consider the use of social organizations in group education of farmers.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Crude Oil Mopping Efficiency of Ground Chicken Feathers: Kinetic and Adsorption Isotherm Studies

Kelle Henrietta Ijeoma, Udeozo Ifeoma Prisca

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20099

Aims: To determine and compare the equilibrium adsorption capacity and adsorption process of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers and mixture of crude oil on water onto ground chicken feathers with that of a conventional synthetic sorbent mat determined under the same experimental condition as ground chicken feathers.  

Study Design: The study was designed to use ground chicken feathers and a conventional synthetic sorbent mat to mop crude oil and mixture of crude oil on water so as to assess the effectiveness of ground chicken feathers as an oil spill sorbent by comparing its mopping profile with that of a standard; a conventional synthetic sorbent mat.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry Laboratory, Federal College of Education (Technical), Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria, between September – October, 2010. 

Methodology: The adsorption of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers/synthetic sorbent mat was carried out in two stages. The first stage of the study involves kinetic study of the adsorption process to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe) of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers and the standard, and the equilibration time of the adsorption process. The second stage of the study involves verification of the adsorption process using adsorption isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich. To determine the mopping profile of crude oil on water onto ground chickens and synthetic sorbent, the experiment was repeat with mixture of crude oil on water. The experiment was carried out at room temperature; 28°C.

Results: The equilibrium adsorption capacity of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers/synthetic sorbent obtained from the kinetic study of the adsorption of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers/synthetic sorbent are 13.60 g/g at equilibration time of 80 minutes and 11.44 g/g at 60 minutes respectively. The linearized form Ceqe versus Ce of Langmuir isotherm model fitted the experimental data with a coefficient of determination r2 of 0.999 for both sorbents, indicating that the Langmuir isotherm can describe the adsorption of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers sand synthetic sorbent. The moderate (less than 10%) average percentage error value (APE %) of 4.6 and 4.8 obtained for ground chicken feathers and synthetic sorbent in the verification of the validity of the Langmuir model in describing the experimental data, confirms the validity of the Langmuir isotherm in describing the experimental data. The adsorption isotherm model shows that one molecule of crude oil is adsorbed on a layer of ground chicken feathers/synthetic and there is no interaction between the adsorbed molecules of crude oil. The intensity of adsorption of ground chickens feather and the conventional synthetic sorbent used as the standard are both 1.00 indicating that ground chicken feathers compared well with the standard in terms of affinity for crude oil and adsorption of crude oil. 14.70 g/g was obtained as the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity qm  of the adsorption of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers, while 11.11 g/g was obtained for the adsorption of crude oil onto conventional synthetic sorbent. The result suggests that ground chicken feathers has larger surface area than the standard and is a better sorbent than the standard. The dimensionless separation factor equilibrium parameter KR Of 0.0011 for both sorbents shows that the adsorption of crude oil onto ground chicken feathers and synthetic sorbent are favourable. About 12.00 g/g and 9.00 g/g of the adsorbed oil can be recovered from ground chicken feathers and conventional synthetic sorbent respectively. This make ground chicken feathers a better sorbent when oil recovery is required. The amount of water adsorbed together with crude oil on water was negligible, which means that both sorbents can be used to mop crude oil spill on land and on water.

Conclusion: The result of the study shows that ground chicken feather adsorbed more crude oil per unit mass than the conventional synthetic sorbent used as the standard in this study. Ground chicken feathers are an efficient natural sorbent that can be used to mop crude oil spill on land and water, and it is efficient for oil recovery.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plasticizer on the Structural and Transport Properties of Mg2+- Ion Conducting Solid Polymer Electrolytes: [PEO: Mg(CH3COO)2]

T. O. Ahmed, A. Ismaila, E. O. Nweke

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2015/20043

In this study, the use of low molecular weight Ethylene glycol [CH2 (OH).CH2OH] as a new type of plasticizer in polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Mg(CH3COO)2 solid polymer electrolytes preparation was examined. The complexation of Mg(CH3COO)2 salt with the polymer in the presence and absence of plasticizer was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The Optical Microscopy (OM) results showed that the microstructural evolution of the pristine polymer is as a result of doping and plasticization. The ionic conductivity was measured for the [PEO: Mg(CH3COO)2] systems in the temperature range 296K – 338K using standard four-probe technique. The addition of Ethylene glycol [CH2 (OH).CH2OH] as plasticizer in the solid polymer electrolytes significantly improved the ionic conductivity. No conduction was observed in the solid polymer electrolyte systems without plasticizer except for the 15-wt-% Mg(CH3COO)2-doped system. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity reveals the conduction mechanism to be an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process.