Open Access Short communication

The Mineral Composition and Proximate Analysis of T. occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) Leaves Consumed in Kano Metropolis, Northern Nigeria

Abdussamad Mukhtar Mohd, Mustapha Balarabe Idris, Abdulfaatir Abdulrasheed

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20632

The work is aim at the determination of the proximate and mineral composition of T. occidentalis leaves consumed in the Kano metropolis. The leaves used in this study were obtained from Sabon Gari market in Kano metropolis, Nigeria. The standard methods of food analysis were used for the proximate analysis, while the method of wet digestion was used for mineral composition. The results of the study revealed that T. occidentalis leaves contain high amount of crude protein and carbohydrate, while fat content in the present study was very low. Likewise, the chemical composition shows that the leaves is rich in Na, Mg, Ca, K, Cu and Zn. Hence, the T. occidentalis leaves could be good sources of nutrients in diets for consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electron Withdrawing Groups and Steric Effects on the Methanogenic Toxicity

B. M. Nsimba, P. V. Tsalu, D. T. Mwanangombo, E. K. Atibu, D. S. T. Tshibangu, K. Kayembe, N. L. Basosila, S. O. Mihigo, P. T. Mpiana

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21375

Aims: This work highlights the influence of the additivity of withdrawing electronic groups attached to the aromatic ring on the inhibition of the production of methane gas by the methanogenic bacteria acetoclastic.

Study Design: Anaerobic digestion of pig manure, anaerobic toxicity essay, Effect of additivity and the number of electron withdrawing groups on the methanogenic toxicity, relationship between the methanogenic toxicity, electron and steric effects.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Kinshasa, DR Congo, from March 2012 to January 2013.

Methodology: The toxicity to acetoclastic Methanogenic archaea was performed with the standard method of serum bottles, digested pig manure was utilized as inoculums and acetate as substrate. The methane gas volume produced was measured by serum bottles liquid displacement systems (Mariotte flask system).

Results: The obtained results show that the increase of the number of electron withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring does not imply by force the increase of the Methanogenic toxicity (MT) of these aromatic compounds, in comparison to those which has only one electron withdrawing group. ¶We notice that Nitrobenzene and Chlorobenzene have shown higher toxicity than their ortho-, meta- and para-Nitro and Chloro groups isomers, respectively. ¶Moreover for these groups, the meta-isomers show more toxicity than the para-isomers, which in their turns are more toxic than the ortho-isomers.

Conclusion: The overall obtained results indicate that as for electronic effects of various withdrawing substituents on the aromatic ring, the steric constraints of those substituents also have a considerable effect on MT.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of in-vitro Anti-oxidant Activity of Extracts of Ixora javanica D. C Flowers

Sunitha Dontha, Hemalatha Kamurthy, Bhagavan Raju Manthripragada

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20661

Introduction: Fruits and vegetables are the sources of nutraceutical compounds in human diet. However, flowers with their pigments rich in phenolics (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) are becoming an important source of several bioactive compounds.

Objective: To identify the compounds in Ixora javanica flowers and to test the in vitro antioxidant activity.

Materials and Methods: Ixora javanica flowers were collected, dried, powdered and extracted with solvents like petroleum ether (60-80°), ethyl acetate and ethanol, of increasing polarity by soxhilation. The phytochemical investigation and the determination of their use in traditional medicine, identified families of chemical compounds that guided us towards pharmacological studies like in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The crude extracts were tested for chemical identification of groups following the methods of Plummer, Trease and Evans etc. The in vitro antioxidant activity was tested throw DPPH free radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging and nitric oxide scavenging methods.

Results: The overall results of the phytochemical screening showed the presence of active constituents like flavonoids, polyphenols, anthocyanins, etc. The antioxidant potential of the ethanolic extract was high, whereas the ethyl acetate extract showed moderate activity and the petroleum ether extract showed poor activity.

Conclusion: The in-vitro anti-oxidant potential of the flower extracts is high. Further research is needed to be carried out to isolate and characterize the active constituents and to proceed for the in-vivo anti-oxidant activity also.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Some Essential Elements Composition of Potash Deposits Found in Yusufari Local Government Area of Yobe State, Nigeria

P. D. Sudi, H. M. Maina, H. Bello, S. M. Hauwa, A. A. Modibbo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20198

The essencial elemental composition of natural potash deposits obtained in Yusufari Local Government Area of Yobe state has been determined. The samples were obtained in three areas namely; Madukuri, Kotufa and Kirba. The highly concentrated essential elements were potassium followed by sodium. K distribuhtion showed; Madukuri (9625±2.5 to 18035±2.2 mg/kg), Kotufa     (855±1.5 to 12493±3.1 mg/kg) and Kirba (11472±2.9 to 25436±3.2 mg/kg). Na distribution showed; Madukuri (3751±1.6 to 5368±1.3 mg/kg), Kotufa (3625±1.9 to 3912±1.8 mg/kg) and Kirba        (3535±2.1 to 5535±3.2 mg/kg). The next essential components were Ca followed by Mg. Ca distribution showed; Madukuri (554±0.9 to 885±1.1 mg/kg), Kotufa (448±1.7 to 933±1.5 mg/kg) and Kirba (603±1.4 to 828±1.4 mg/kg). Mg distribution showed; Madukuri (53.4±0.8 to 58.5±0.5 mg/kg), Kotufa (57.4±0.05 to 58.8±0.2 mg/kg) and Kirba (53.4±0.8 to 58.5±0.5 mg/kg). The levels of essential component decrease in the order as K >> Na >> Ca> Mg. The level of essential element found in potash may complement of the requirement of these elements in animal nutrition on consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dielectric Study of Pure Propan-1-OL and Propan-2-OL Using Debye Relaxation Method

M. Y. Onimisi, J. T. Ikyumbur

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21662

The Debye relaxation equation and its derivatives were used to analyze the experimental permittivity data of high purityPropan-1-ol and Propan-2-ol over the frequency up to 10GHz and temperature range of 10ºC to 50ºC. The plots of dielectric constant  and loss factor against the frequency were found useful in determining how well experimental data fits the Debye equation and these methods were also found capable of reproducing good results of fitted data using double-Debye. The dielectric constant of Propan-1-ol was found to decrease as the temperature increases beyond 10ºC whereas that of Propan-2-ol increased at the temperature 20ºC. It then decreased as the temperature increased beyond 20ºC.  The loss factor on the other hand was found decreasing as the temperature increases for both Propan-1-ol and Propan-2-ol. This work also reveals that Propan-2-ol at 20ºC followed Debye relaxation equation only at frequency range.

Open Access Review Article

Chemistry of Thallium-based Topological Insulators

M. B. Babanly, Y. I. Jafarov, Z. S. Aliev, I. R. Amiraslanov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21362

The goal of this review is to briefly introduce the chemistry of the topological insulators (TIs) based on thallium chalcogenides. Numerous phase diagrams of ternary Tl-BV-X (BV – Sb, Bi; X – Se, Te) systems having TlBVX2 type compounds which exhibit spin polarized topological surface state  is evaluated and compiled. Published data on the phase equilibria in the quaternary Tl-Sb-Bi-X and Tl-BV-X-X/ systems are also reviewed and it has been revealed that their quasiternary Tl2X-Sb2X3-Bi2X3 and reciprocal 3Tl2X+BV2X/3↔3Tl2X/+BV2X3 subsystems form a wide range of solid solutions based on compounds TlBVX2 and BV2X3, whose both confirmed as potential 3D TIs materials. All phase diagrams of respective systems offer profound possibilities for growth their large single crystals from melt.