Open Access Case study

Consequence Analysis of Catastrophic Release of Diesel and Fuel Oil from their Storage Tanks Using SCIA Software

S. Mustapha, M. El-Harbawi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22091

Catastrophic release of diesel and fuel oil from their storage tanks can lead disasters to human, property and the environment. Thus consequences analysis of the accident has significant importance to human communities living in the surrounding area and the authorities involved in land planning. Consequence analysis is normally carried out using mathematical models for predicting the impacts of chemical accidents. This paper presents result of the consequence analysis from study cases namely catastrophic release of diesel and fuel oil from their storage tanks using Simulation of Chemical Industrial Accident (SCIA) software. The software is a user-friendly and effective tool for evaluating the consequences of major chemical accidents, process decision making for land-use planning, namely locating suitable hazardous installations, hazardous waste disposal areas and emergency response plan. Release of diesel and fuel oil might escalate to pool fires and thus require evaluating their characteristics and the posed hazard. It is recommended for future land planning and development, a town must be located at least half kilometre away from the storage tanks to minimize the disaster impacts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study, Microbiological Activity and Cytotoxicity of Leaves and Stem from Plant Species Mikania lindleyana DC

Wilkyson Alfaia Costa, Dionel Heleno de Souza Silva, Ryan da Silva Ramos, Edilson Leal da Cunha, Luís Roberto Takiyama, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeid

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/18351

Aims: The objective of this research was to study phytochemical, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of crude ethanol extract of Mikania lindleyana leaves and stems.

Study Design: Samples of plant species M. lindleyana were collected in the city of Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The leaves and stems of this species were analyzed and the plant was identified by comparing with the voucher specimen at the Herbarium of the Federal University of Amapá, in the city of Macapá. Experimental tests were performed at the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical of the Pharmacy Undergraduate Course at the Federal University of Amapá.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples collection occurred in the city of Belém-Pará-Brazil in December, 2012. The study was conducted between January and September, 2013 at the Federal University of Amapá.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening was performed according to the method described by Macêdo and by the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The bioassay cytotoxicity on Artemia salina was performed using the ethanol extracts of the Mikania lindleyana, where calculations were made for the CL50 employing BioEstat ® and PROBIT tool. The microbiological test was performed by the tube microdilution method in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

Results: The Screening Phytochemical analysis of the leaf and stem ethanol extract from the Mikania lindleyana DC indicated the presence of tannins, saponins and the extracts showed no antimicrobial activity on the bacteria tested. The cytotoxicity of the extracts might be related to the alkaloids and saponins present in its constitution.

Conclusion: The study helped the community, suggesting that despite its popular use is not recommended as antimicrobial agent, and contributed to the scientific community, opening a new front of research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Understanding the Influence of Molecular Weight on the Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Two Cellulosic Polymers

I. O. Arukalam, I. C. Madufor, O. Ogbobe, E. E. Oguzie

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/16664

Understanding the Influence of Molecular Weight on the Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Two Cellulosic Polymers

Corrosion inhibitory efficacy of two cellulosic polymers, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on mild steel in 1 M HCl have been investigated with a view to assessing the influence of molecular weight on the inhibition performance. In the study, weight loss measurement technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentio-dynamic polarization corrosion monitoring techniques were employed. Weight loss results reveal that on comparative analysis, HPMC gives better inhibition performance than HEC, though both polymeric molecules achieved inhibition efficiency up to 90%. Changes in impedance and polarization parameters suggest the adsorption of HEC and HPMC on the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective polymeric films. Furthermore, HPMC that has larger molecular weight than HEC also showed higher adsorptive capability following thermodynamic-kinetic isotherm model. The experimental results were corroborated by results from theoretical studies which involve quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics simulation, whereby the HPMC molecules demonstrated higher ability to donate electrons to the vacant d-orbital of the metal, than HEC molecules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Varied Concentrations Fipronyl in the Laboratory Management of Termites

Rotich Godfrey, Robert W. Nyukuri, Fredrick M. Wanjala, Nellie C. Oduor, J. J. Kiptoo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21725

Fipronyl are chemical formulations of phenyl pyrazole insecticide acting on the chloride channel of nervous system of insects to hinder chloride metabolism of γ- amino butyric acid of insect’s nervous system resulting in excess neuronal stimulation followed by death. It has good control against subterranean termites attacking buildings. The efficacy of Fipronyl 200 g/l against field -collected eastern subterranean termite was carried out to assess the efficacy of Fipronyl at the rate of 200 g/l in controlling termites when compared with fipronil 25g/l in laboratory since Fipronil 25 g/l was the experimental standard. The experiment was laid out in a Randomised Block Design carried out in the laboratory with five treatments and six replicates.Both termicides were tested at Fipronyl 200 g/l concentrations (2 ml/l, 4 ml/l and 6 ml/l) and fipronil 25 g/l under concentration of (10 ml/l) by treating Eucalyptus grandis and Gravillea robusta wood blocks. The research was carried out at the Forest Products Research Centre of the Kenya Forestry Research Institute. The mode of wood          blocks treatment was by dip diffusion. This study showed that 2 ml/, 4 ml/l and 6 ml/l levels of concentrations for Fipronyl or fipronil 25 g/l (10 ml/l) have equal impact on termites since there was no significant difference in weight loss in the treated timbers, compared with untreated blocks that had weight loss. Therefore, Fipronyl are effective termicides at the rates of 2 ml/l, 4 m/l and 6 ml/l. Fipronil 25 g/l are effective termicides at the rate of 10 ml/l. Further exposure time of wood samples to termites is advisable to give a clear evaluation on the efficacy of Fipronil 25 g/l and Fipronyl 200 g/l commercial formulations at various treatment concentrations on treated timber.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Lithium Copper Molybdate Nanoparticles and their Application for Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green

M. Joshi, P. Kumawat, R. Ameta, S. C. Ameta

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20291

In the present investigation, degradation of a non - biodegradable azo dye, malachite green has been carried out using lithium copper molybdate (Li2CuMo2O8) as a photocatalyst. This catalyst was prepared by solid state reaction between Li2CO3, CuO and MoO3. The effect of various parameters such as pH, concentration of malachite green, amount of lithium copper molybdate and light intensity has also been studied. Water quality parameters like chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductance, pH, TDS, salinity and dissolved oxygen have been determined before and after treatment. The rate of photodegradation of malachite green dye followed pseudo- first order kinetics. A tentative mechanism involving OH radicals as an oxidant for degradation of dye has been proposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Solvent Extraction Process for Revivification of Used Lubricating Engine Oil

D. O. Araromi, M. O. Aremu, O. O. Gbolahan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/19989

In this work two single (ethanol and 1-butanol) and one composite (1-butanol-ethanol) solvents were used for refining Used Lubricating Engine Oil (ULEO) at temperatures 35ºC, 45ºC and 50ºC. The solvents performances were investigated at Solvent Oil Ratio (SOR) 1:1 to 7:1 using percentage oil yield as performance metric. The study revealed that 1-butanol produced the best performance for regenerating ULEO. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of 1-butanol-ethanol for regenerating ULEO.