Open Access Short Research Article

Synthesis of 4-Phenylazo Phenol from Anthocyanins of Delonix regia and Hibiscus sabdariffa Flowers

Oaikhena Z. Esezobor, Bassey A. Maikasuwa, Terrumun A. Tor-Anyiin, John O. Igoli

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22393

Anthocyanins extracted from flowers of Delonix regia and Hibiscus sabdariffa were coupled with diazotised aniline. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the resulting product to be 4-phenylazo phenol. This study provides a viable use for anthocyanins as an alternative source of phenol used in the synthesis of this dye.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Varied Concentrations of Fipronyl 200 G/L in the Graveyard (Field Trial Test) Control of Termites

Rotich Godfrey, Robert W. Nyukuri, Nellie Oduor, Sylvia Mmbone, J. J. Cheboi, J. J. Kiptoo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22327

Fipronyl is chemical formulations of phenyl pyrazole insecticide acting on the chloride channel of nervous system of insects to hinder chloride metabolism of γ- amino butyric acid of insect’s nervous system. It has good control against Microtermes nataensis from attacking buildings. This study evaluated the efficacy of Termidor and Fipronyl 200 g/l commercial formulations at various treatment concentrations on treated timber. Termidor was the experimental standard. The experiments was laid out in a Randomised Block Design carried out in the graveyard with 100 samples, five treatments and ten replicates. Both termicides were tested at Fipronyl 200 g/l concentrations (2 ml/l, 4 ml/l and 6 ml/l) and Termidor under concentration of (10 ml/l). This showed that 2 ml/l, 4 ml/l and 6 ml/l levels of concentrations for Fipronyl or termidor (10 ml/l) have equal impact on termites since there was no significant difference in weight loss in the treated timbers compared with untreated timbers that had weight loss. Fipronyl treatment is effective at different concentration. This was determined by assessing the magnitude of timber attack by subterranean termites under different treatment regimes. It is advisable for the user to use Fipronyl 200 g/l at medium concentration this is because too high concentration may kill termites faster than expected while at lower concentration may not supply a sufficient dose for contaminated termites to transfer a lethal dose to unexposed termites. Appropriate concentration of a termiticides should be applied to achieve a wide coverage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accumulation of Toxic Metals in Soils of Different Sections of Mechanic Village Abakaliki, Nigeria and Their Health Implications

J. O. Oti Wilberforce

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21546

Composite samples of soil were collected between June 2013 and May 2014 from different sections of mechanic village Abakaliki such as mechanic, welder, electrician and panel beater workshop. A control sample was collected from a farm near the mechanic village about 500 m away. Orion 920A pH meter and X-ray Fluorescence spectrophotometer were used to determine the pH and different concentrations of metal in the soil. In addition, Walkley and Black method was used to determine the percentage of organic matter while Hydrometer method was used to determine the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the soil samples. The results showed average pH of 6.2±0.82 and metal concentration (in mg/Kg) ranged from (0.12±0.2 – 84.41±6.4) for As; (6.41±0.2 – 116.02±12..2) for Cd; (8.12±1.2 – 80.72±12.2) for Co (764.32±112.4 – 444.14±16.14) for Cu; (1.14±0.12 – 6.18±0.18) for Cr; (1212.8±24.1 – 525.12±44.2) for Fe; (822.0±72 – 620.18±66.2) for Mn; (82.4±8.0 – 228±8.6) for Ni;  (268.12±46.8 – 664.62±52) for Pb and (788.24±84.2 – 1420±142) for Zn. Percentage (%) of organic matter, sand, silt, and clay respectively were of the range 1.12±3.4 – 1.68±3.4;  54±22 – 58.12; 9.31±0.92 – 18.8±1.22 and 26.48±2.81 – 32.18±3.22. The concentrations of the investigated heavy metals were higher in the top soil than in the sub soil and this suggest that source of pollution was anthropogenic. Elevated concentrations of  Ni > Pb > Cd > As above the US-EPA Regulatory Limits in that order were observed in the samples collected from, while variations in the heavy metal levels were generally observed between and within groups. Regular monitoring of heavy metal in the soil is expedient for safety of environment and human health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Equilibrium, Kinetic Studies on the Adsorption of Acid Green 3 (Ag3) Dye Onto Azolla filiculoides as Adosorbent

Davoud Balarak, Edris Bazrafshan, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22048

Batch studies were conducted for Equilibrium, kinetics studies on the biosorption of Acid Green 3 from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides. The variation of pH, dose of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of Acid Green 3  Dye was investigated. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process was determined as follow: pH= 3, contact time = 90 min, adsorbent dosage=4 g/L and dye concentration=10 mg/L. The most AG3 dye removal efficiency of 99.1% was obtained in optimum conditions. Kinetic analyses were conducted using pseudo-first and second-order models. The regression results showed that the adsorption kinetics was more accurately represented by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption isotherms are described by means of the Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Redlich–Peterson isotherms. It was found that the Langmuir equation fit better than the other equation. The study showed that Azolla filiculoides could be used as a new and efficient adsorbent material for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin C (L-ascorbic Acid) Content in Different Parts of Moringa oleifera Grown in Bangladesh

Khondoker Shahin Ahmed, Rajib Banik, M. Hemayet Hossain, Ismet Ara Jahan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21119

Vitamin C is a water soluble organic compound that participates in many biological processes. The objective of the present research is to evaluate the vitamin C contents in different parts of Moringa oleifera e.g. tender and matured leaves, flowers and pods grown in Bangladesh. Vitamin C content in fresh samples of six different M. olifera plants were determined by the HPLC method. Vitamin C content in the tender leaves of six M. olifera was found to be 62.66 to 143.587 mg/100 g, matured leaves contained 51.226 to 150.157 mg/100 g, flower showed 77.502 to 224.672 mg/100 g whereas four weeks aged pods were found to contain vitamin C 3.96 to 8.27 mg/100 g. In this study the vitamin C content in M. oleifera flowers was found to be in highest amount and the pods contained the lowest amount of vitamin C compared to the other plant parts. On the other hand vitamin C content in matured leaves was observed to be present in higher amount than the tender leaves.

Aims: The present study investigates the vitamin C content in different parts of Moringa oleifera grown in Bangladesh. The main object of this work was to see the level of vitamin C content in different parts of the study plant like leaves, flowers and pods in different Moringa tree.

Methodology: Vitamin C content was determined quantitatively by HPLC.

Results: Vitamin C content in the six M. oleifera plants was found to be 62.66 to 143.587 mg/100 g for tender leaves, 51.226 to 150.157 mg/100 g for matured leaves, 77.502 to 224.672 mg/100 g for flowers and 3.96 to 8.27 mg/100 g for four weeks aged pods.

Conclusion: It can be said that different parts of M. oleifera plants grown in Bangladesh are good sources of the vitamin C.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concentration of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Water and Sediment Samples from River Ilaje, Nigeria

Akinnawo Solomon

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22077

The levels of organophosphorous pesticide residues were determined form water and sediment samples collected from two sampling point within river Ilaje during the dry and rainy seasons. The extracts were analyzed for the presence of organophosphorous pesticide residues using a Gas chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) to identify and quantify the various organophosphorous pesticide residues. The result shows that all the samples analyzed were contaminated with some levels of organophosphorous pesticide residues. The pesticides detected include Diazinon, Phosphamidon, Dichlofenthion, Methyl Parathion, Pirimiphos-methyl, Parathion, Bromophos-ethyl, Ethion, Carbofenothion, Carbaryl and Fenthion. The mean concentration of the pesticide residue in water samples ranges from not detected to 7.087 mg/l (Phosphamidon) during the dry season and from not detected to 4.456 mg/l (Ethion) during the rainy season. For the sediment samples the mean concentration ranges from not detected to 2.256 µg/g (Phosphamidon) during the dry season and from not detected to 1.717 µg/g (Phosphamidon) during the rainy season. This shows that in the water samples, the concentration of Phosphamidon was highest during the dry season while the concentration of Ethion was highest during the rainy season. The concentration of Phosphamidon was the highest in the sediment samples for both seasons.