Open Access Short communication

Synthesis and in vitro Antisickling Activity of Some Non-aromatic Esters

Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, Augustin M. Malumba, Pius T. Mpiana

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22734

Organic acids and their derivatives like butyl stearate have recently shown antisickling activity. Some none aromatic esters were synthetized and tested for their antisickling activity using Emmel test. On 21 esters tested only three showed no antisickling activity. Butyl palmitate, propyl palmitate, butyl stearate, propyl stearate and methyl nonadecanoate showed interesting antisickling activity with a normalization rate higher than 70%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibition of the Developmental Stages of Ascaris suum and Antimicrobial Activity of 3β-Hydroxylolean-12,18-diene Isolated from the Aerial Parts of Canarium schweinfurthii (Engl)

B. J. Okoli, G. I. Ndukwe, R. G. Ayo, J. D. Habila

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21377

Our search for anthelminthics from nature led to the isolation of 3β-hydroxylolean-12,18-diene, from the aerial Parts of Canarium schweinfurthii for the first time. A plant used in the treatment of parasitic worms in Nigeria, the structure was elucidated using spectral data and by comparison with literature data. Preliminary antimicrobial screening of the extract at 50 mg/mL showed 66.7% inhibitions against the test organisms. The isolated 3β-hydroxylolean-12,18-diene showed inhibitory activity at 6.25 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Eschoriahia coli, Shigella dysenteria, Bacillcis subtlis, Kebsiella pneumonia, Candida stellatoidea while Salmonella typhi, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis were inhibited at 12.5 µg/mL. The ovacidal and larvacidal activities of 3β-hydroxyl olean-12,18-diene against the pre-infective and infective stages of Ascaris suum, showed percentage inhibition between 62 to 65% and 76 to 86% as compared to the standard drug Albendazole which showed inhibition ranging between 96.1 to 97.5%. The results of this investigation clearly shows that the plant has potential that can be explore in the search for antiparasitic drug from nature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chitosan-Grafted Carbon for the Sequestration of Heavy Metals in Aqueous Solution

Aderonke A. Okoya, Abimbola Bankole Akinyele, Omotayo Sarafadeen Amuda, Ifeanyi Emmanuel Ofoezie

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21813

Heavy metals removal from wastewater is totally essential to evade water pollution. The present study showed the performance of chitosan coated carbon for the removal of chromium (VI) and Pb (II) from aqueous solution. The following elements; C, K, Ca, Mg, Al,  Si, P and Cl were revealed by Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) as part of the constituent of the adsorbent while Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) reveal agglomeration of the adsorbent particle. Batch adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the removal efficiency under the various factors such as the effects of initial concentration, adsorbent dose, agitation time and particle size. The adsorbent possess good adsorption efficiency for chromium (VI) and lead (II) with optimum agitation time of 90 to 120 min even at low concentration. Experimental data were analysed by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The characteristic parameters and related correlation coefficients were determined. The isotherm study revealed that the adsorption equilibrium is well-fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. The selectivity order of the adsorbent (modified and unmodified) towards the ions was found: Pb (II) > Cr (VI). The method could be successfully employed for removal of toxic metals from industrial effluents and could solve the problem of disposal of agricultural waste materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between the Antimicrobial Properties of Benzylpenicillin and the Quantum Chemical Parameters of Its Structure (The DFT Method)

V. А. Babkin, D. S. Andreev, А. А. Pristanskov, L. М. Lisina, А. I. Rakhimov, N. А. Rakhimova, V. S. Belousova, G. E. Zaikov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22022

The relationship between the antimicrobial properties of benzylpenicillin and its electronic structure, the analysis of which has been carried out by the quantum chemical DFT-PBE0 / 6-311g **method, has been examined   for the first time. The carbonyl groups of benzylpenicillin responsible for the blockade of the synthesis by pentodoglikans, which in turn are responsible for the antibacterial properties of benzylpenicillin, have been revealed. Its acid strength (pKa = 12) has been theoretically estimated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transition Metal Complexes of 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carbaldehyde: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities

J. Anandakumaran, M. L. Sundararajan, T. Jeyakumar, Mohammad Nasir Uddin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22807

Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) complexes with Schiff base ligand derived from piperonal and sulfanilamide have been synthesized and characterized by elemental (C, H and N) analysis, UV-Vis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectra, thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and molar conductance measurements. The spectral data suggest that the coordination of metal ion with ligand is only through imine nitrogen (–CH=N–) as monodentate manner. Thermal analysis indicates the presence of lattice and coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Mass spectral data further support the formula mass and structure of the compounds. Biological activities of all the compounds were evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Studies of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Exposure in Homes Using Different Cooking Fuels

Ize-Iyamu Oghomwen Christie, Ukpebor Justina Ebehirieme, Ize-Iyamu Osaro Karl, Isara Alphonsus Rukevwe, Ukpebor Emmanuel Ehiabhi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22075

In-situ atmospheric monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO) was carried out in ten homes where n-butane gas, kerosene stove and firewood were used as cooking fuels respectively. Of the ten houses, four houses surveyed used n-butane gas only as the fuel type, four other houses used kerosene stove only while the last two houses used firewood only. A dosimeter, humidity/ temperature meter were used in determining the concentrations of the CO, the humidity and the temperatures in the selected homes in urban environments. The diurnal trends of carbon monoxide were monitored for about six weeks in these homes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted in these homes using the different cooking fuels after baseline levels of carbon monoxide concentration in the homes were assessed during cooking hours and non–cooking hours. A total of 59 respondents drawn from the ten selected homes were interviewed concerning their experiences of symptoms suggestive of exposure to carbon monoxide. A total of 28 (47.5%) respondents reported had symptoms suggestive of exposure to carbon monoxide. CO levels was highest in the houses were firewood was used as the fuel source and lowest in the houses where n-butane gas was used. However, comparing the results obtained with the World Health Organization and Federal Ministry of Environment standards of 9ppm and 10ppm respectively, the CO values were found to be above limits in some of the houses where n-butane gas, kerosene were used and above the set limits in all the houses where firewood were used as cooking fuel. CO Routine monitoring is recommended and the discontinuous use of firewood as cooking fuel should be strongly enforced not only to reduce the CO concentration but also minimize deforestation.