Open Access Short Research Article

Laboratory Studies on the Treatment of Effluent from a Pulp and Paper Mill Using Activated Carbon and Sand Filter Media

Nwankwere Emeka Thompson, Nwadiogbu Joseph Onyebuchi, Arebame Theophilus, Ukah Jerry, Agu Chizoba

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/18929

Aims: To investigate and compare the efficiency and synergistic effect of carbon and sand filter column setup in the treatment of a pulp and paper mill effluent.

Study Design: This study presents a report on preliminary laboratory investigation on the treatment of a pulp and paper industry effluent using the synergy of activated carbon prepared from maize cobs and nitric acid treated quartz sand packed in a glass column as filtration media. The amount of sand and activated carbon were varied systematically to optimize the process. Changes in the properties of the effluent were recorded after series of tests before and after treatment procedure.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria, Department of Industrial Chemistry, Caritas University Enugu, Nigeria and Centre for Environmental Management and Control, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria, between April 2013 and November 2014.

Methodology: Quality Parameters of the effluent sample were tested in the laboratory and the means presented. The carbon was made from corn cobs and activated with phosphoric acid while the quartz sand was well washed and acidified with dilute nitric acid. A laboratory setup of the carbon-sand filter was used to treat the wastewater by filtration and adsorption. Five separate setups were made and the sorbents used were systematically loaded using the formula C = -S(%) +100 and drained at a rate of 1.53 ml/s. The physicochemical, oxygen and bacteriological quality parameters were tested again and the means of the results recorded before and after each treatment procedure.

Results: The results obtained were also compared with the Nigerian Standard for drinking water quality (NIS 554:2007), demonstrated that the method was excellent for the improvement of physiochemical, oxygen and bacteriological parameters in the wastewater.

Conclusion: The values of the treatment efficiency show that the experimental setup with 30% sand and 70% activated carbon was the most suitable for effluent treatment.

Open Access Short Research Article

Synthesis of New N-substituted Nalidixic Acid Hydrazide Derivatives

Łukasz Popiołek

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23144

This research describes the synthesis and spectral analysis of new N-substituted nalidixic acid hydrazide derivatives. New compounds were obtained by the substitution reaction of nalidixic acid hydrazide with trisubstituted s-triazines. The structure of all synthesized compounds was confirmed by elemental analysis and spectral data (1H NMR).

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Irrigation Water from the Vicinity of a Hospital Liquid Waste Treatment Plant

E. A. Adegbe, F. G. Okibe, C. E. Gimba, E. B. Agbaji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23127

The quality assessment of surface water used for irrigation within the vicinity of a Hospital liquid waste treatment plant in Zaria, Nigeria was conducted. A total of thirty-three (33) water samples were collected from four sampling sites in the study area. These samples were examined for heavy metal content using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Major physicochemical water quality indicators were determined by standard methods. At 95% confidence level, the average levels in mg/l of Chromium, Lead, Cadmium, Iron Manganese, Nickel and Cobalt were 0.39±0.11, 1.52±0.8, 0.09±0.01, 6.93±0.62, 0.36±0.09, 0.37±0.04, 0.70±0.32 respectively. These values were above the World Health Organization permissible limit for these heavy metals in surface water. The mean value of 1.16±0.07 mg/l dissolved oxygen in the samples was lower than the World Health Organization standard of 5 mg/l. The mean turbidity value of 5.93±0.06 mg/l exceeded the permissible levels set by World Health Organization. All other physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and temperature) were below World Health Organization permissible limits. In view of elevated heavy metal concentrations, depleted oxygen and high turbidity, the study have shown that effluents from the hospital liquid waste treatment plant contaminate the receiving irrigation surface water system which may in turn have deleterious impact on crops and other organisms in the study area. To reduce the pollution of the liquid wastewater on the receiving environment complete overhauled or replacement of the treatment plant is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of New Pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamides and Investigation of Their Activity for the Synthesis of Aminonitriles

Ozge Aydin, Cigdem Yolacan, Feray Aydogan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23201

New pyrrolidine-1,2-dicarboxamide derivatives were synthesized by the amidation reactions of some amines, an amino alcohol and an amino acid ester with (S)-1-(phenylcarbamoyl)pyrrolidin-2-carboxylic acid, which was obtained from the reaction of L-proline with phenylisocyanate. Activities of these compounds for the synthesis of aminonitriles have been investigated. The organocatalysts catalyzed the reaction with good yields, while they did not showed any significant asymmetric induction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Profile of Leaves and Roots of Miracle Fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum)

V. N. Osabor, R. A. Etiuma, M. U. Ntinya

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20456

Proximate analysis, elemental analysis and phytochemical analysis were conducted on leaves and roots of S. dulcificum (miracle fruit). The results of proximate analysis of the leaves sample showed  the following compositions: protein (6.62±0.02)%, crude lipid (12±2.00)%, crude fibre (17.5±0.50)%, moisture (40.30±1.53)%, ash (6.70±2.00)% and carbohydrate (57.60±0.01)%, while that of roots samples showed protein (5.6±0.07)%, crude lipid (7.5±1.4)%, crude fibre (20.30±1.53)%, moisture (29.2±1.06)%, ash (8.00±1.56)%, and carbohydrate (58.60±0.01)%. Meanwhile the phytochemical screening analysis of the leaves of S. dulcificum showed the following concentrations in the leaf smples; alkaloids (0.6±0.20)%, saponins (2.80±0.20)%, flavonoids (2.8±0.2)%, polyphenols (3.52±0.10)% cardiac glycosides (3.44±0.20)%. Similarly, the root samples exhibited the following concentrations: saponins (0.6±0.02)%, polyphenols (4.30±0.10)%, anthraquinones (0.02±0.12)% and cardiac glycosides (4.40±0.20)%. On the other hand, the mineral elements concentrations of the leaf samples were as follows; Ca(0.001±0.00) mg/100 g, Cr(0.0006±0.00) mg/100 g, Fe(0.0029±0.01) mg/100 g, Zn (0.0095±0.00) mg/100 g Cu (0.00082±0.01) mg/100 g while that of root samples were recorded thus; Ca(0.00134±0.01) mg/100 g, Cr(0.00073±0.01) mg/100 g, Zn(0.0097±0.01) mg/100 g Fe(0.00025±0.01) mg/100 g and Cu (0.007±0.01) mg/100 g. Generally, the leaf samples of S. dulcificum were rich in carbohydrate and moisture while the roots were rich in carbohydrate, moisture and fibre. Ash, fat and protein also showed remarkable concentration. Essential mineral elements were present at required concentration thus making S. dulcificum an important source of phytomedicine in the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Components of the Essential Oil of Lantana camara L. Found in North Central Sudan Region of Nigeria

Egharevba Henry Omoregie, Ibrahim Jemilat Aliyu, Ebere Uchechukwu Doris, Okhale Samuel Ehiabhi, Kunle Oluyemisi Folashade

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22944

The essential oils of medicinal and aromatic plants remain a veritable tool in the management of ailments in ethnomedicine. Essential oils from medicinal plants had also been reported to possess various pharmacological activities, and have found relevance in food and industrial applications. Lantana camara L. is a well-known poisonous plant in ethnomedicine with proven numerous biological activities. The essential oil of the Nigerian species which has not been well studied was extracted by hydro-distillation and analyzed using a Shimadzu GC-MS QP2010 SE. The major chemical components of the oil were found to be Davanone (15.54%), Eucalyptol (12.72%),          β-Phellandrene (10.58%), α-Pinene (9.30%), Caryophyllene (6.99%), and (6E)-Nerolidol (5.68%). This is the first time Davanone has been reported from the species, and the species may present an alternative source for natural davanone.