Open Access Original Research Article

Biosorption of Acid Blue 225 from Aqueous Solution by Azolla filiculoides: Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies

Shahram Sadeghi, Ali Joghataei, Nammam Ali Azadi, Davoud Balarak

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22821

Batch studies were conducted for kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of Acid Blue 225 (AB 225) dye from aqueous solution by Azolla filiculoides. The biomass used as adsorbent in this work was initially characterized by SEM and BET. The effect of parameter including adsorbent dose, initial pH, initial concentration and contact time were investigated. Results show that the pH value of 3 is favorable for the biosorption of dye. The dye adsorption efficiency increased with increase in adsorbent dose and contact time. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using three widely applied isotherms: Langmuir,Freundlich and Tempkin. The results revealed that Langmuir isotherm are well fitted on the experimental results. The maximum dye removal efficiency was obtained to be 31.66 at dose adsorbent 2.5 g/L and 19.94 at dose adsorbent 5 g/L. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients greater than 0.997.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Drinking Water Quality Using Water Quality Index in Ado-Ekiti and Environs, Nigeria

Busayo Mutiat Olowe, Jacob O. Oluyege, Oladiran Famurewa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22445

Aim: To assess the quality of drinking water sources in Ado-Ekiti and environs, Nigeria, using Water Quality Index (WQI).

Study Design: Experimental study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Ekiti State University, Ekiti State, Nigeria, between January 2014 and August 2014.

Methodology: The Weighted Arithmetic Water Quality Index (WAWQI) method, which classified water quality according to the degree of purity, was adopted in this study. The WAWQI was determined on the basis of various physico-chemical parameters which included pH, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, chloride and nitrate. The parameters were determined using standard methods.

Results: The mean values of the physico-chemical parameters revealed that majority of the samples fell below the WHO maximum permissible limits while others were above WHO specifications. The calculated WAWQI revealed the water quality level of the different water sources as follows; 54.16, 65.12, 67.46, 56.29, 46.08 and 49.59 for borehole, stream, pipe-borne, well, spring and packaged water samples, respectively.

Conclusion: This result is an indication that the analyzed water samples from different sources were of poor water quality with the exception of spring and packaged water samples which are of good water quality in terms of physico-chemical qualities and thus safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Bioaccumulative Potential of Copper Cadmium and Lead by Gymnarchus niloticus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis in Pollution Prone Aquatic Environments of North-Western Nigeria

H. L. Muhammad, R. A. Shehu, L. S. Bilbis, S. M. Dangoggo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21591

Heterobranchus bidorsalis in Pollution Prone

Fishes in aquatic environment accumulate metals in their tissues many times greater than present in sediment and water. Three organs: gills, muscles, and bones were collected from Gymnarchus niloticus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and some mineral elements analyses using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two separate seasons (January-February) and (August-September), and from four rivers (Bunsuru, Gagare, Rima, and Goronyo) receiving chronic inputs of run-offs from illegal mining and dyeing sites. Copper (Cu) level in gills of Gymnarchus niloticus season I sampling of River Bunsuru river was higher (3.30±0.36) µg/g but not significantly (p>0.05) above the WHO upper limit of 3.0 µg/g in sea foods while it was lower all tissues of Heterobranchus bidorsalis in the two seasonal samplings with the exception of bones in season 1 sample. Copper levels in Heterobranchus bidorsalis of Rima River for the two seasons were above the WHO limit, particularly those of season II. Lead (Pb) concentrations in all tissues (gills (4.75±0.87) µg/g, muscles (4.68±0.67) µg/g, and bones (4.34±0.34) µg/g) of Gymnarchus niloticus of Goronyo Dam season II samples were high than the WHO acceptable limit. Same is the case with Heterobranchus bidorsalis of Goronyo Dam season II. No tissues of the two fish species bioaccumulated significant level of cadmium (Cd). In general, there was no seasonal variation or differential accumulative potentials of copper and lead (Pb) in the two fish species. The only factor responsible for high bioaccumulation may be the level of metals in sampling sites. Other essential elements: Ni, Fe, Mg, Cr, Ca, Na and K were within the WHO acceptable limits for sea foods. The chronic discharge of wastes containing the minute quantities of lead and copper may lead to bioaccumulation and biotoxicity to aquatic species and to man who is the end receptor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Lead and Cobalt from Pharmaceutical Effluent: Efficiency of Activated Coconut Shell and Commercial Activated Carbon

U. M. Mohammed, M. Binta, S. Mustapha, M. Idris

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22558

Zinc Chloride, Sodium Sulphate and Boric acid were used as activating agents for coconut shell. The activated carbons prepared from the mentioned activating agents labelled AC1, AC2, and AC3 were tested for their adsorptive capacities compared with commercially activated carbon (CAC) made from wood, a product of Calgon for their removal of lead and cobalt from pharmaceutical effluent. The percentage removal of Cobalt and lead onto activated carbons from coconut shell was investigated in a batch system by considering the effects of contact time and pH. Adsorption processes in the study indicate that the sorption of lead and cobalt with AC1, AC2 and AC3 were higher than with CAC. Contact times of 60 and 90 min were found to be the optimum for Cobalt and lead respectively. The adsorption kinetic data were analysed with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, Natarajan and Khalaf first-order and Elovich models. The results indicated that the second order model best described the adsorption kinetic data. The proximity of generated data to those reviewed in literatures is an indication that activated carbons from coconut shell have the potential for the adsorption of cobalt and lead from pharmaceutical effluent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation Chemical Interaction Type of Polyacrylic Acid Based Hydrogel with Doxorubicin Hydrochloride

Shamo Zokhrab Tapdiqov, Samira Mirali Mammadova, Dilgam Babir Taghiyev, Nizami Allahverdi Zeynalov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23087

In alkali environment hydrogels with high swelling ability have been synthesized as a result of cross-linking  well water soluble and non-toxic polymer - polyacrylic acid (Mη=230 kDa) with 5, 10, 15 and 20% ratio (by weight) of N,N`-methylene-bis-acrylamide. Absorption processes of obtained hydrogels with doxorubicin hydrochloride from water environment have been researched. Dependence of sorption degree and sorption capacity of antibiotic on environment pH and starting concentration of doxorubicin has been researched and nature of chemical interaction between hydrogel and antibiotic has been found out via infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear-magnet resonance spectroscopy methods. It was determined that in pH=8 hydrogel taking 10% cross-linking reagent inside has 570% swelling degree and with increasing environment pH sorption capacity increases up to 13.4 mg/g as per doxorubicin of gel. It was investigated with UV, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy methods that interaction hydrogel with antibiotic occurs due to hydrogen bonds and electrostatic forces.

Open Access Review Article

Saponin Terpenoids; A Brief Review of Mechanisms of Actions and Anti-cancerous Effects

R. Aboutalebi, A. Monfared

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/20638

Saponins are high molecular weight glycosides with a wide variety of biological activities and pharmaceutical applications. Saponins are widely distributed in plants and interact biologically with active cellular structures. It seems that saponins in different classes may have different inter- or intra-cyto-modulating targets and their specific effective sites. In recent years, some cytotoxic activities of important phytochemical components of saponin category have been revealed, and also an apoptotic effect on some carcinomatous cells lines showed. There is a vast variety of properties that by three major mechanisms as; Direct nuclear intervention, Immune system augmentation and Chelating effects promotes the anti-cancerous effects of saponins and regulation of some molecules like cyclin A, promoting the immune system and also affecting on the apoptosis of cells are among them. In this review we try to classify the prominent interactions of these molecules and effects of these groups of compounds over the cellular apoptotic mechanisms, Immune system interference, and cell protection, hence trying to elucidate probable important points in future usage of natural pharmaceutical treatment of cancerous cells.