Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in Groundwater in the Vicinity of an Oil Depot in Nigeria

Peter Olaoye Oyeleke, Funmilayo Joke Okparaocha

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22913

Assessment of heavy metals in groundwater located around refined petroleum products depot in Ibadan, Nigeria were carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) technique. Water samples were collected and analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The mean concentrations (range) of 0.0064±0.005 mg/l (ND – 0.019 mg/l), 0.0014±0.002 mg/l (ND – 0.005 mg/l), 0.45±0.3 mg/l (0.06 – 0.96 mg/l) and 0.042±0.08 mg/l (0.018 – 0.389 mg/l) were obtained for Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn, respectively. Cd was not detected in all the water samples analyzed. All the heavy metals investigated in the water samples except Pb were generally below the recommended limits set by regulatory bodies such as World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Industrial Standards/Standard Organization of Nigeria (NIS/SON) for drinking or potable water. There was elevation of Pb concentrations in all the water samples in the area which were significantly above the recommended limit. This suggests that source of Pb contamination could be from anthropogenic activities such as loading and offloading of petroleum products. This pollution of groundwater in the vicinity of the oil depot caused by Pb contamination is a potential threat to the people living in the area as groundwater is their major source of potable water. Therefore, government should provide good drinking water for people located in the area while remediation process of the heavy metal should be carried out on the site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Minerals and Trace Elements in Termiteria and Ten Meter (10 M) Adjacent Soils in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

J. A. Ndahi, O. N. Maitera, D. Kubmarawa, M. H. Shagal

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23195

This work was aimed at assessing minerals and trace element contents of termiteria and ten meter adjacent surface soils during dry and rainy seasons. The study area (Maiha), was stratified into east and west sampling locations from which a termiterium and its ten meter adjacent soils were randomly selected for sampling from each sampling location. Termiteria samples were collected with core scoop in three places while adjacent surface soil samples were collected at 0 – 50 cm depth in April 2014 and August 2014 for the dry and rainy seasons respectively. Samples were dried, ground and sieved to powder form to obtain gross samples and test samples were obtained through cone and quartering process. Samples were analyzed for mineral contents with X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and for trace elements contents, with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at National Geological Science Laboratory Kaduna, Nigeria. XRD analysis determined thirteen minerals which can be arranged  in terms of abumdance as: quartz (SiO2) > {microcline (K Al Si3O8), rutile TiO2} > montmorillonite (Na0.3(Al, Mg)2 4H2O(Si3.1 Al0.9) O10 (OH)2) > {brucite Mg(OH)2, covellite (CuS), dickite (Al2 Si2O5(OH)), dolomite (Ca.1.13Mg0.87 (CO3)2), greenalite (Fe3Si2O5(OH)4), ellite                         (K, H3O)Al2Si3AlO10(OH)2, muscovite-3T (K, Na)(Al, Mg, Fe)2Si4O10(OH)2.4H2O), orthoclase (K(Al, Fe)Si2O8), phillipsite (K Na Ca Fe Al Si6.39H2O),}. XRF analysis detected fifteen trace elements, viz: Zr > Ba > Ag >Sr > Rb > Eu > Ni >V > Re > Ir > Zn > Ga > Cu >Yb > Cr. Single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no  significant differences between contents of  termiteria and ten meter adjacent soils as well as  seasonal variation (P < 0.05). Termiteria can be used as a tool for mineral exploration. Eating termiteria and its ten meter adjacent soil should be done with caution due to their trace element contents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Theoretical Study of New Schiff Bases Derived from 1,8-Diaminonaphthalene and Their Ni(II) Complexes

Taher S. Ababneh, Taghreed M. A. Jazzazi, Hamdan S. AlEbaisat, Tareq M. A. AlShboul, Mansour H. Almatarneh, Albara I. Alrawashdeh

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23705

In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of some new Schiff base compounds (L1H2, L2H2 and L3H2) derived from the condensation reaction of 1.8-diaminonaphthalene with substituted benzaldehydes (3-NO2, 3,4-OMe and 4-CN) and their nickel (II) complexes. The characterization and nature of bonding have been attained by a means of elemental analysis (C, H and N) and spectral analysis (FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR). The analytical and spectral data are in good agreement with the suggested structures and show a 1:1 molar ratio of the ligand to metal and reveal that the Schiff base ligands are bidentate and coordinate with the Ni (II) ion via the two azomethine nitrogen atoms Theoretical modeling of prepared Schiff base complexes have been conducted using DFT calculations and the obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The computational structural features and relative energies for all the prepared complexes were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) levels of theory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Suitability of Selected Nigeria Clay Deposit for Production of Clay Based Ceramic Water Filters

S. A. Olubayode, O. S. Awokola, E. O. Dare, O. T. Olateju

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23175

This study is designed to investigate the suitability of selected Nigeria clay deposit for Clay based ceramic water filters (CWFs). Clay samples were collected from five randomly selected locations within Nigeria Namely: Ibafo in Lagos state, Ondo in Ondo state, Ilesha in Osun state, Ajebo in Ogun state and Kumbuso in Kano state to determine their suitability for Clay based ceramic water filters (CWFs). Experimental analysis for Liner shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density, compressive strength X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) were carried out on each of the clay samples. Test results reveals that all the clays were kaolinite in nature, containing high contents of alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2) with minor contents of P2O5, Fe2O3, MgO, K2O, MnO and TiO2. The average crystal sizes of the clay were between 8.96 nm and 19.68 nm, lattice structure indicates that the sample were Monoclinic, Anorthic and Hexagonal. Ceramic water filters (CWFs) were made from a mixture of the various clay samples and sawdust at different volume ratios, and processed into test samples. Water absorption, linear shrinkage, flow rate and compressive strength of the clay based ceramic filters (CWFs) reveals that as the volume ratio of sawdust increases these properties decreases. The research indicated that Lagos clay has highest strength and flow rate and thus lagos and Ogun clay can be recommended for use in Clay based ceramic water filters production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compressed Stabilized Earth Block: A Green Alternative for Non-load Bearing Building Block in Developing Countries like Bangladesh

Md. Mominur Rahman, Mirza Md. Rashiduzzaman, Fazle Zawad Akhand, Kazi Bayzid Kabir

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23071

Fire-burnt clay molded brick remains the chief building material in Bangladesh although it is considered as a massive source of Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study compressed earth blocks stabilized with various additives were examined as an alternative to the fire burnt clay molded bricks with a view to a partial replacement of the same which is mainly responsible for its role in environmental degradation. Various compositions of lime and cement were used with different soil types as additives in earth block molding and then were pressed with a hand press to provide compaction and a definite shape in solid form. Drying and curing was done before the blocks were tested for strength. Although the strength yielded by the blocks was not comparable to that of fired clay brick, it produced rewarding results regarding the reduction of GHG emission, energy consumption and overall cost of production. Also this paper suggests some realistic uses of these low strength compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB) in real field. However, the results obtained from this study will aspire the future research to reach the target in replacing the fired brick to that amount which is now being used as non-load bearing building block in construction sector of Bangladesh.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Mimusops elengi Flower Extract and Its Synergistic Antimicrobial Potential

J. Jeyasundari, P. Shanmuga Praba, Y. Brightson Arul Jacob

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23161

Aims: To express environment friendly method for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Mimusops elengi flower extract and incorporation of AgNPs with selected antibiotics at distinct dose.

Study Design: Samples of Mimusops elengi flowers were collected in NMSSVN College garden. Silver Nitrate purchased from TCI Chemicals Chennai, Tamilnadu, INDIA. The procedure used is simple and sustainable making it suitable for economic production of SNPs.

Place and Duration of Study: PG and Research Department of Chemistry, NMSSVN College, Madurai, Tamilnadu, INDIA, between December 2014 and September 2015.

Methodology: About 20 gm of finely cut flowers were kept in a beaker containing 200 mL double distilled water and boiled for 30 minutes. The extract was cooled down and filtrate was stored in refrigerator until the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out. About 6-8 mL of the Mimusops elengi flower extract was added to 40 ml of 1 mM AgNO3 solution for the reduction of Ag+ ions. The reduction of the Ag+ ions by Mimusops elengi flower extract in the solutions was monitored by UV-Vis spectrum further characterized by XRD, SEM-Eds and FTIR.

Results: This method shows that Aqueous Ag+ ions were reduced to AgNPs when added to the Mimusops elengi flower extract, this indicated by the color change from whitish yellow to brown and the control showed no color change. UV-Visible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in range of 431.96 nm. X-ray diffraction was employed to ascertain the crystalline nature and purity of the silver nanoparticles which implied the presence of (111) (200) and (220) lattice planes of the face centered cubic (fcc) structure of metallic silver.

Conclusion: AgNPs synthesis is a simple, clean which involves efficient method to reduce metal ions. Mimusops elengi flower extract was found to be an effective biological tool for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The results confirmed that SNPs can act as a powerful antibacterial agent against various pathogenic bacteria.