Open Access Original Research Article

Multivariate Analysis of Under Ground Water Pollution Sources in Agbabu Bitumen Belt

Abatyough Terungwa Michael, Ibraheem Aderemi, Onoyima Christian, Adebiyi Adedayo, Yusuf James, Ahmed Salamatu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21991

Multivariate data analysis is used to analyse underground water samples from ten (10) different water sources in Agbabu bituminous belt of Nigeria. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed Component one (PC1) to be the most significant Component accounting for 54.09% of the pollution, with high loadings for Cd, Pb and Mn suggesting them to be the most significant pollutants for the study area. Mean concentrations of heavy metals indicated high pollutions with Cr, Cd and Mn to have highest concentrations and a relatively fairly concentrated Pb.  Physicochemical properties were analysed for Alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and phosphates. Using Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), similarities in the pollution patterns of the various wells was observed, with Cluster one (CL1) showing similar clustering for wells highly polluted with Pb and Cd but low in Fe. Wells in cluster two (CL2) indicate wells highly polluted with Cd. Low polluted wells for Pb, Fe and Cd pollutants are found in Cluster three (CL3). All clusters agree with ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation result indicating variation among the various water sources. The cause of underground water pollution showed to be anthropogenic and geogenic in the study area and suggests the underlying bitumen deposit and its mining activity to be majorly responsible for the pollution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Brazilian Kaolin Wastes: Synthesis of Zeolite P at Low-Temperature

M. Rodrigues, A. G. Souza, I. M. G. Santos

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22771

The synthesis of zeolite in forms suitable for industrial applications is of great importance, mainly as ion exchange material, molecular sieves, adsorbents and catalyst. This paper deals with synthesizing zeolite P using waste kaolinite as starting material (from Brazilian industry ores). The material was characterized by chemical element analysis (FRX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared and Raman spectroscopies. With promissory results, although traces of other zeolitic products, such as Zeolite LTA and Zeolite Y, the XRD characteristic peaks attributed to the formed zeolite were confirmed by the 39-0219 (NaP1) cards of JCPDS. The synthesis products are of interest as they can be used in several environmental applications. The photocatalytic activity of prepared material was tested for discoloration process of Remazol Golden Yellow (RNL) dye in aqueous solution under UV irradiation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Zygadenine- N- ribofuranoside from the Leaves of Nymphaea alba Lily

Peter Chidi Njoku, Johnbull O. Echeme, Rosemary I. Uchegbu, Emeka C. Ogoko

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/19929

Aims: To isolate and characterize a new secondary metabolite, zygadenine-N-ribofuranoside derivative from the leaves of water lily (Nymphaeae alba L.).

Methodology: The ethanol extract of the dried leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water (1:1), then the chloroform fraction was further partitioned between petroleum ether (60-80°C) and aqueous methanol (1:1). Column chromatography of the chloroform fraction over silica gel (200 mesh) by a gradient elution technique from petroleum ether to chloroform, followed by methanol was carried out.

Results: A yellow solid 0.22 g was isolated which was characterized by employing IR, 1D and 2D NMR techniques spanning 1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY, HMBC and TOF ESI-mass spectrometry.

Conclusion: Zygadenine-N-ribofuranoside derivative isolated, gave m/z 622.4631, corresponding to molecular formula C33H54O9N2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution by Acrylic Acid Modified Walnut Shell: Isotherms and Kinetics

Liping Cheng, Weilan Xue, Zuoxiang Zeng

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23548

The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of acrylic acid modified walnut shell (AA-WNS) for Pb(II) were investigated in the temperature range of 288-308K. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized for evaluation of the developed walnut shell. Adsorption isotherm data were better interpreted by Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximal adsorption capacity was 238.65 mg g-1 at 308 K. The adsorption kinetic data were well correlated by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption process was governed by both film and intraparticle diffusion, with film diffusion at the fast stage followed by intraparticle diffusion. A Boyd kinetic plot confirms that the slowest step of Pb(II) adsorption by AA-WNS is film diffusion. The thermodynamic parameters ∆G, ∆H and ∆S were determined. Recycling properties of AA-WNS were studied, indicating that it can be reused for Pb(II) adsorption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Refining Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Some Selected Vegetable Oils

C. T. Onyema, K. K. Ibe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23290

The post refining processes effects on the physicochemical properties of some selected vegetable oils were studied using standard analytical procedures. The results obtained showed that specific gravity were unaffected after refining with values 0.900 (crude and refined palm oil), 0.916 (crude and refined palm kernel oil), and 0.917 (crude and refined soybean oil). Refractive index was 0 for all the vegetable oils as well as melting points of palm kernel oil and soybean oil which remained unaffected post refining. Drastic colour reduction after refining was also noted as well as the melting point of palm oil which fell from 38°C to 21°C. Correspondingly, there was reduction in the chemical properties such as acid value (%FFA), peroxide value and saponification value. This study also revealed unsaponifiable matter showing no linear variation as it increased from 24.8% to 31.9% for crude and refined palm oil respectively and 25.05% to 33.15% for crude and refined soybean oil respectively with a decrease of 32.3% to 30.55% for crude and refined palm kernel oil respectively after refining. Hence, chemical properties are targeted and mostly affected in refining in a bid to getting an effective oil for human consumption while limiting the removal of nutritional content of the vegetable oil or fortification in cases of inadequacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies of Ampicillin Complexes

Abdulhamid Dahiru, Adamu Suleiman Ahmad, Abba Tijjani Muhammad, Manniru Abdullahi Ali

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24042

The complexes obtained were characterized by solubility in methanol, acetone, ethanol and distilled water in which only the cobalt complex is soluble in hot acetone and methanol. Melting points of the complexes were 270°C and 251°C for the Cu and Co complexes, respectively. The copper complex was found to have a lower conductance (5.46 x 10-6-1 mol-1 cm2) than the cobalt complex (5.58 x10-6 -1 mol-1 cm2). Infrared spectroscopic analysis shows a hypsochromic shift in ν(C=O) band of the spectra from 1396.79 cm-1 for the ampicillin ligand to 1268.55 cm-1 and 1156.61 cm-1 for the complexes of copper and cobalt, respectively, while insignificant shifts for the ν(C-N), ν(C=N) and ν(N-H) bands were noted. These band shifts indicate that the coordination occurs through carbonyl oxygen of the complexes. Investigation of antimicrobial activity was also carried out on gram negative and positive microorganisms of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. The complexes were found to be active on Escherichia coli showing a high zone of inhibition, followed by the Klebsiella isolates, and insignificant action on Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the inhibition zone findings, the synthesized complexes exhibit higher activities for these microorganisms than the parent ligand.