Open Access Short communication

Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera as Potential Indicator for Acid-base Titration

Khalid Da’u Khalid, Mustapha Balarabe Idris, Naziru Alhassan Muhammad, Ahmad Bala Ahmad

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23058

Indicator is one of the solution which is of great importance in volumetric analysis. Different flower extract were tested to see their effectiveness and how they can be used as substitute to synthetic indicators, because of their hazardous effect on to the environment and cost. Extract of Moringa oleifera flower also serve the same purpose tested at different concentrations of acid-base solution coupling in which the mean value and standard deviations obtained shows that, it can effectively stand in place of synthetic ones. As such extract of Moringa oleifera can be used as acid-base indicator.

Open Access Original Research Article

Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ Complexes of Butanedione Hydrazones: Spectroscopic, Thermal and Biological Studies

Othman A. Al-Fulaij, Ahmed E. El-Sayed, Ahmed A. El-Asmy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22592

Complexes of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ with malonyl- and succinoyl bis(2,3-butanedionehydrazone) [MBH, SBH] have been synthesized and characterized. Single crystal of SBH was found monoclinic with space group of P121/c14. The MBH complexes have the formulae: [Co(MBH)Cl2].H2O, [Ni(MBH-2H)(H2O)2].2H2O, [Cu(MBH-2H)(H2O)2].2H2O, [Cu(MBH-H)(OAc)].2H2O while the SBH complexes have [Co(SBH-H)(H2O)], [Ni(SBH-H)2], [Ni(SBH)Cl2], [Cu(SBH-H)Cl], [Cu(SBH-H)(OAc)].2H2O, [Zn(SBH)2Cl]Cl, [Cd(SBH-H)2].-H2O and [Hg2(SBH)2Cl2]Cl2. All complexes are nonelectrolytes except [Zn(SBH)2Cl]Cl and [Hg2(SBH)2Cl2]Cl2.5H2O. MBH and SBH ligate as neutral, mononegative and/or binegative bidentate. The carbonyl group (C=O)ketone is not taking part in complexation. The magnetic moments and electronic spectra afford a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes; square-planar for the Co2+ and [Ni(SBH)Cl2] complexes and octahedral for the other complexes. The thermal decomposition of the complexes revealed the outer and inner solvents as well as the remaining part which is metal or metal oxide in some cases. The complexes have variable activities against some bacteria and fungi. [Hg2(SBH)Cl2] Cl2.5H2O has the highest activity against all tested organisms. [Ni(SBH-H)2] and [Zn(SBH)2]Cl2 hve activity against Bacillus and E. coli. On the other hand, MBH and [Co(MBH)Cl2].H2O have activity against Penicillium only.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Four Plant Essential Oils from Nigeria against Macrotermes subhyalinus (Rambur)

H. Shola Awojide, Labumi Lajide, J. Bodunde Owolabi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24199

The present study was carried out to determine the anti-termitic activity of four plants essential oils (Monondora myristica seed, Piper umbellatum seed, Pinus sylvestry leaves and Piper nigrum seed) from Nigeria against Macrotermes subhyalinus (Rambus). The essential oils were extracted by steam distillation and graded into different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 mL/L). The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-MS. The result of the contact and repellence test showed that, the activities of the essential oils against Macrotermes subhyalinus increases with dose and time. The results revealed that during contact test, all essential oils showed toxicity against Macrotermes subhyalinus but the effectiveness of the essential oils differs, the essential oil of Monondora myristica had the lowest contact activity for all doses administered,100% mortality of M. subhyalinus was observed with a dose of 0.5 mL/L of the essential oil after 10 minutes of exposure, while with the same dose, 100% mortality was observed with P. nigrium and P. umbellatum after 20 minutes and 5 minutes respectively. All the essential oils proved to be repellent against Macrotermes subhyalinus with the essential oil of Monondora myristica having the least repellency. From the GC-MS analysis, the major components of the essential oils of Monondora myristica, Piper umbellatum, Pinus syvestry and Piper nigrum are trans-13-octtadecenoic acid (25.18%), aromadendrene (13.74%), α- terpineol (27.17%) and linalool (21.73%) respectively. Therefore, significant variation was observed in repellence, and contact activities between different doses and time of exposure (P<0.05). The result shows that the essential oils had termicite activity against M. subhyalinus and it was dose and time dependent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Densiometric Study of Chloroquine Diphosphate in Aqueous Solution of Acetic Acid at 293.15K

Monalisa Das, Sunil Kumar Pradhan, Smrutiprava Das, Ajaya Kumar Patnaik

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24038

The apparent molar volume , limiting apparent molar volume  and solute-solute interaction parameter ( ) of chloroquine diphosphate in aqueous solution of acetic acid at 293.15K were calculated. The apparent molar volumes had been computed to calculate the partial molar volumes of transfer  and excess molar volume . The excess values and other parameters such as density, apparent molar volume, limiting apparent molar volume, solute-solute interaction parameter, and transfer volume have been interpreted in terms of different interactions present in the mixture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Activities of the Seeds of Mucuna pruriens (UTILIS)

R. I. Uchegbu, A. A. Ahuchaogu, C. N. Mbadiugha, K. O. Amanze, C. E. Igara, I. C. Iwu, P. C. Ikechukwu-Nwankwo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24043

Aim: To ascertain the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities of the extracts of seeds of Mucuna pruriens (utilis).                                                   

Study Design: The study was designed to test the inhibitory ability of the plant extract on edema and human pathogens and to test its antioxidant activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri. Imo state Nigeria, between March 2013 to September 2014.

Methodology: The seeds  of M. pruriens were cracked, the testa were removed  and the seeds were milled into fine powder with Thomas Willey milling machine and dissolved in ethanol for 48 hrs, this was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated with Rota evaporator at 40°C and then used for analysis. The effects of Mucuna pruriens (utilis) on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan and formalin induced paw edema respectively. The anti-edema effect of these seeds was compared with diclofenac potassium 10 mg/kg orally. The antibacterial activity was performed by filter paper disc diffusion technique. The antioxidant activity of the seeds of                  M. pruriens was evaluated by reducing power test.

Results: Administration of M. pruriens (10 mg/kg) and diclofenac  potassium (10 mg/kg) decreased the inflammation at the rate of 9.8% and 62.0% respectively and increase in dosage  of M. pruriens (50 mg/kg) showed a decrease at the rate of 47.80% for acute inflammation and 38.80% for chronic inflammation. Thus the crude extracts exhibited significant activity in rats. The seeds were found to have high antioxidant activities. Extracts of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens exhibited strong antibacterial activities on all the tested organisms, Staphylococus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli. The lowest concentration of the seed extract that inhibited the visible growth of an organism after overnight incubation was 12.5 mg/ml for all tested organisms except for Klebsiella pneumonia which was 25.00 mg/ml. This indicates that M. pruriens seeds may be used against bacterial infections, inflammation and as antioxidant in herbal medical practice.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Different Variables on the Electrical Conductivity Sensitivity of Synthesized Zeolite/Polymer Composites for Various Gases: A Review

Muzzaffar Ahmad Mir, Rawoof Ahmad Naikoo, Samiullah Bhat, Radha Tomar, Muzzaffar Ahmad Bhat, Rayees Ahmad Bhat, Pukhrambam Dipak, D. C. Tiwari

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23558

In this review synthesis of zeolites, cation exchange of zeolites and polymerization of polymers in zeolites to form zeolite/polymer composites is reported. The effect of various variables like zeolite content, temporal response of the zeolite, effect of cation concentration, effect of vapor type, effect of cyclic interval, pore size, zeolite type, Si/Al ratio and type of cation in the zeolite pore on the electrical conductivity sensitivity of zeolite/polymer composites to various gases is reported here. An increase or decrease in the above variables and their effect on the sensitivity of the composites is summarized.