Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening of Leaves of Catharanthus roseus (L.)

Amanda Furtado de Almeida, Ryan da Silva Ramos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeid

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/19227

Aims: To determine the major classes of secondary metabolites found in the leaves of Catharanthus roseus (L.).

Study Design: The study aimed to determine the major classes of secondary metabolites of plant species Catharanthus roseus through technical and classical methodologies.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry of Pharmacy Course, in the period between July 2013 and May 2014.

Methodology: The analyzes carried out phytochemical: organic acids, phenols and tannins, anthraquinones, organic acids, depisides and depsidones, flavonoids, triterpenoids and steroids, alkaloids, purine, polysaccharides and saponins, catechins were carried out.

Results: The results of the phytochemical analysis were positive for organic acids, reducing sugars, phenols and tannins, depsides and depsidones, steroids and triterpenoids, alkaloids and saponins.

Conclusion: According to the biological activity, cited in the literature, the metabolites present in the leaves of C. roseus (L.) is associated with its use empirical; however, its use in folk medicine is very restricted due to their high toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isothermal Crystallizaiton Kinetic and Melting Behaviors of Nylon 6/66/510

Lei Zhou, Weilan Xue, Zuoxiang Zeng

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25442

In this work, nylon 6/66 (S0) and nylon 6/66/510 (S1~S3) containing 5 ~ 15 mol % nylon-510 were synthesized by melt condensation polymerization and the isothermal crystallization kinetics and melting behaviors after isothermal crystallization of copolymer were systematically studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The chemical structures and molecular weights were characterized by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The values of t1/2 and the equilibrium melting temperature for all samples were calculated by Avrami equation and Hoffman-Weeks, respectively. The crystal structure of the copolyamides were also investigated by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WARD). The results shows that: (1) Avrami model can be used to well describe the isothermal crystallization behavior of the copolyamides, and all the values of t1/2 increase with increasing the Tc or the mole fraction of nylon 510. (2) The crystallization activation energy (ΔE) and nucleation constant (Kg) both increase with increasing the mole fraction of nylon-510, which indicating that the addition of nylon nylon-510 decreases the crystallization rate of copolymer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sugar-mimic Alkaloids from Faeces bombycis and Their Pronounced α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

Jianfeng Lin, Yihai Wang, Xiangjiu He

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25834

A new sugar-mimic alkaloid, (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine- N-glyoxylamide (1) and a novel natural sugar-mimic alkaloid, (2R,3R,4R)-2-[(S)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]piperidine-3,4-diol (2), as well as nine known compounds, were isolated and identified from Faeces bombycis. Compounds 1 and 2 showed remarkable inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with the IC50 value of 1.9 and 6.2 μM, which were 93.4 and 28.6 potent folds than that of acarbose. The               results showed that the sugar-mimic alkaloids from Faeces bombycis exhibit significant and reasonably broad range α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which may be useful in the prevention               of the postprandial hyperglycemia and provide new candidates for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Physical and Chemical Composition and Quality of Hoplias malabaricus and Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) Fillet Collected in Pirativa River -Santana-AP

José Policarpo Miranda Junior, Ryan da Silva Ramos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeid Silva de Almeid

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/18346

Aims: The purpose of this research was to perform the physical and chemical study of the composition and the quality of the fillet of Hoplias malabaricus (Traíra) and Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794) collected in Pirativa River-Santana-Ap.

Study Design: This study was chosen in the areas on the banks of Pirativa river in anthropized and non-anthropized areas in the city of São Raimundo, at coordinates N 00 02'08,9 "W 051 15 '32.3" in Santana-AP.

Place and Duration of Study: the research was conducted in Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Laboratory of the Course of Pharmacy from January to September of 2014, and in the Fish Processing Laboratory of the Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), from July to September of 2014.

Methodology: The physical and chemical parameters adopted in this research were pH, humidity, Waste from Incineration (Ash), Lipids and Total Volatile Bases. All the tests were carried out according to standards in the Adolfo Lutz Institute.

Results: The yield values ​​were 48.30 and 46,632% respectively for Hoplias malabaricus (Traíra) and Leporinus friderici (Aracu). Regarding the physical and chemical parameters, the species Hoplias malabaricus (Traíra) and Leporinus friderici (Aracu) presented, respectively, pH 6.80 and 7, humidity 70 004±4:57 and 2:44±65.55%, ash 2.88±0.74 and ±3:50 1:51%, lipid values of 10:50 and 11.90% indicating high molecular weight lipids, and volatile bases ±0.01 1.76±1.69 and 0:03.

Conclusion: Attention should be paid to the proper packaging and treatment of fillet, because external factors, from the fish catch to the market of its by-products, influence the quality and nutritional value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Crude and Oil Extract of Paracress (Spillanthesacmella)

M. F. Adesemuyi, S. Adeoye, O. A. Owolabi, A. T. Ogundajo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24020

Syhthesis and characterization of crude and oil extract of Spillanthesacmella was carried out using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol. The extraction of Spilanthesacmella oil and crude extract from powdered Spilanthesacmella plant using petroleum ether gave 1.2406 g, chloroform gave 0.6412 g and methanol gave 8.4231 g. 5.049 g of Spilanthesacmella oil was gotten and 2.4341 g of potassium chloride was collected from the oil. The result showed the presence of amine, alkene, ketone/aldehyde, carbonyl and ester at different frequencies which is in line with other works done. Deca-6, 8 dinyoic acid isobutylamide was isolated using IR, 1HNMR and 13C-NMR spectra.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Fuel Properties and Pollution Potentials of Lignite Coal and Pellets of its Blends with Different Biowastes

C. N. Ibeto, M. C. Anisha, C. N. Anyanwu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25603

The fuel properties and pollution potentials of lignite coal, wood chippings, cashew leaf litter, yam peels and rice husks were improved by blending, carbonisation and pelletization. Four blends of lignite coal with the biomass samples were prepared in 20:80 ratio and made into pellets using vegetable oil as binder. The lignite coal, biomass and their blends were carbonised at 623 K. Proximate and ultimate analyses were carried out while the calorific values, lignocellulosic content of each biomass and their blends were determined. Also the pollution potentials of each fuel in a hypothetical pulverised fuel combustion plant were derived using a metallurgical and thermochemical data base (MTDATA). The quantities of CO2, NO2 and SO2 that would be emitted per hour from the plant were calculated. The results of the proximate analysis for the raw samples showed that lignite coal had the highest fixed carbon (26.10%) and moisture content (31.50%). Except for lignite, the carbonised samples had an improved fixed carbon and volatile matter contents, relative to the uncarbonised blends. The ultimate analysis of carbonised blends showed an increase in hydrogen and oxygen content with a decrease in sulphur and nitrogen contents. However, the calorific values of the pelletised blends almost doubled, showing clearly the improvement in energy content of the blends. For the simulated pulverised fuel combustion power plant analysis using MTDATA, each fuel showed that blending and carbonisation can improve lignite coal, thereby reducing the high moisture content, high ash and also the SO2, CO2 and NO2 emissions to an extent. It also proves that most of the NOX gases are generally thermal in nature. Therefore, blending of lignite coal with different biomass and waste materials should be encouraged in coal fired power plants to reduce environmental pollution, increase energy and power output.