Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Spectroscopic Studies and Antimicrobial Activity of Novel Aromatic Hydrazones Derived from 1-Hydralazinophthalazine

Joseph N. Yong, Peter F. Asobo, Kennedy D. Nyongbela, Romanus N. Njong, Oswald N. Nfor

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26059

Aims: To synthesize novel Schiff bases, determine their structures by spectroscopic methods including IR, 1H and 13C NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis and test them against some selected bacterial strains.

Methodology: 1-Hydralazinophthalazine was condensed with 5-methylfurfural and 2-acetylthiophene to form hydrazones. The Schiff bases obtained were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar-diffusion method.

Results: The spectroscopic data indicate the presence an exocyclic C=N and an N-H bond on the hydralazine moiety of the Schiff base. These compounds show moderate activity against the selected bacterial strains

Conclusion: Two new Schiff bases were derived from hydralazine hydrochloride and their structures were determined by elemental analysis, single X-ray diffraction method, IR and NMR. These compounds showed moderate antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial strains compared to amoxicillin and norfloxacin as standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Quality of Groundwater in Parts of North-West Mandals of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India

D. Sarada Kalyani, V. Rajesh, C. L. Monica, S. Srinivasa Rao

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25976

Aims: To study the quality of groundwater in the selected mandals of Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, India, in terms of drinking water quality parameters and to express the same in the form of water quality index that can be understood easily by the public.

Study Design: The study includes i) collection of 20 groundwater samples from 5 different mandals, ii) Determination of 9 most significant quality parameters for all the water samples collected iii) Calculation of water quality index by incorporating data of multiple water quality parameters into a mathematical equation and iv) Assessment of water quality based on the water quality indices.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, V. R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India, during winter season between November and December 2015.

Methodology: Water samples were collected from the sampling sites and nine quality parameters were determined based on the well-known standard procedures. Taking the drinking water quality standards proposed by Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) into consideration, the subindex values were calculated, from which the overall water quality indices were obtained.

Results: Results revealed that pH ranged from 7.45 to 8.30, dissolved oxygen from 7.0 to 8.7 and turbidity from 0.01 to 0.92. These three parameters are found to be within the permissible limits in case of all the twenty samples. Further, concentration of chloride is within the permissible value of 250 ppm for 15 samples. The other parameters (alkalinity, hardness, TDS, EC and fluoride) exceeded the permissible limits in many locations. The total hardness values were found to be within the limit at eleven stations, while the excess values were obtained at remaining nine stations. Total hardness is below the permissible limit for all the four stations belonging to Vatsavai mandal. The sample from Mullapadu of Penuganchiprolu mandal exhibited highest values of chlorides, hardness, TDS and EC. The water quality index corresponding to the water from this station is found to be 36, the highest among all the twenty samples.

Conclusion: The water quality index (WQI) values range from 5.4 to 36.0 in the present study. The acceptable limit of WQI is ≤ 50.0. Hence, it is concluded that groundwater from all the twenty stations is safe for domestic purpose. However, the sample from Mullapadu of Penuganchiprolu mandal exhibited the highest water quality index of 36 due to very high values of certain quality parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Heavy Metal Assessment of Water Samples from Boreholes near Some Abattoirs in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

O. S. Edori, F. Kpee

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/22525

Water samples from boreholes near abattoirs in Iwofe, Agip (Ayagologo) and Mile III were collected and assessed for some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals. The physicochemical parameters were analysed using American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods, while the heavy metals were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results indicated that all the physicochemical parameters measured in all the stations except pH at Agip station which was 5.50±1.76a were all within the WHO and SON permissible limits of 6.5-8.5. The heavy metals analysed showed that copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr) (Iwofe and Agip) were below WHO and SON permissible limit for drinking water. Cadmium (Cd) was not detected in any of the samples. The other metals examined were all above the standard limits prescribed by these organisations for drinking water. Zinc (Zn) (3.379±0.01 - 6.599±0.04 ml/L) range was higher than the WHO and SON upper limit of 3.0 ml/L. Manganese (Mn) values which ranged from 0.049±0.01-0.054±0.01 in the station were above the WHO limit of 0.4 ml/L and SON limit of 0.2 mg/L. Nickel (Ni) ranged between 0.012±0.00 - 0.047±0.00 ml/L and the stations, which were higher than the acceptable limit of 0.02 mg/L by WHO and SON. Arsenic (As) was 0.15±0.00 - 0.37±0.04 mg/L range in the stations which was higher than the maximum requirement of 0.01 mg/L by WHO and SON. The result showed that the metal concentrations were generally in the order; Zn > Co > As > Mn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb > Fe > Cd in the stations examined. The implication of the results obtained is that the water from these boreholes sited within the vicinity of these abattoirs, are not suitable for human and animal consumption and also for the treatment of the meat during processing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Properties of Jute Pulps from Atmospheric Organosolv Process

Halil Turgut Sahin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25914

It was realized that extended reaction time did not affect either kappa number or yield for both untreated and bio-treated ethanol-alkali jute pulps. The delignification ability of the ethanol-alkali organosolv system was somewhat better than the caustic soda system. However, the ethanol addition into the caustic soda reflux system improved yield with probably carbohydrate retention in the pulp. Moreover, bio-treatment of jute prior to ethanol-alkali pulping under reflux system does not affect the delignification and yield.

The maximum burst and tensile strength for ethanol-alkali system was found to be at 1 h. Cooking time with 3.9 kPa m2/g and 66.1 N m/g, respectively. However, increasing the reflux time for beyond 1 hour markedly reduce strengths. Moreover, the tear strengths of jute pulps from the caustic soda system were higher than pulps from the both untreated and bio-treated ethanol-alkali systems. The highest tear strength of 22.5 mN m2/g was also found with 1 h. Cooking in caustic soda system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel by Using Sulpha Drugs in Phosphoric Acid Medium: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach

Dakeshwar Kumar Verma, Fahmida Khan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26282

The corrosion inhibition effect of Sulfacetamide and sotalol on the mild steel has been investigated in 1M H3PO4 acid medium. The inhibiting effect was investigating using weight loss measurement and quantum chemical method. The obtained results revealed that both inhibitors inhibited the mild steel corrosion in the phosphoric acid solution. The inhibitors showed more than 90% inhibition efficiency at optimum concentration. Sulfacetamide shows inhibition efficiency of 94.22 whereas sotalol shows efficiency of 91.40 at optimum concentration. Results obtained exposed that inhibition occurs through adsorption of the drugs on mild steel surface without modifying the mechanism of corrosion process obeying the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to determine the relationship between molecular configuration and their inhibition efficiencies. The order of inhibition performance obtained from experimental results is successfully verified by DFT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the mild steel surfaces established the presence of a protective adsorbed film.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancement in Photovoltaic Parameters of a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell by Surface Plasmon Resonance of Metallic Silver Nanoparticles

Eli Danladi, J. A. Owolabi, G. O. Olowomofe, M. Y. Onimisi, Aungwa Francis

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25888

The influence of silver nanoparticles in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction was demonstrated. The results show that addition of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to titanium dioxide (TiO2) photo anode significantly improved the performance of the DSSC. The modified silver photo anode presents an enhanced photovoltaic response compared to the reference electrode. The DSSC containing AgNPs, gave a short-circuit current density (JSC) of 0.138 mAcm-2, open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.470 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.504, yielding an efficiency (η) of 0.065%. The cell exhibits (i) 63% improvement in efficiency over the efficiency (0.040%) (ii) 48.4% enhancement in short circuit current density over the Jsc (0.093 mAcm-2) and (iii) 8.5% improvement in open circuit voltage over the VOC (0.433 V) of bare fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)-based device lacking AgNPs. The increase of Jsc is attributed to the enhanced dye light absorption in strength and spectral range due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs in photo anode, while the increase of Voc may be related to the more negative level of the quasi-Fermi energy of Ag-TiO2 composite system resulting from the added AgNPs. The related PV performance enhancement mechanism and surface-plasmon resonances in DSSCs with Ag nanostructures are discussed.