Open Access Short Research Article

Effects of Activation and Modification on the Microstructure and Composition of Fly Ash

Mande Qiu, Yidan Wang, Miao Niu, Qingjiao Han, Miao Zhang

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26348

The fly ash was activated and modified respectively by acid and alkali- soluble method, BET, XRD, SEM and EDS were used to investigate the specific surface area, phase, surface microstructure and the major elements of the original coal fly ash and the modified sample. The results show that the acid or alkali can change the specific surface area, the microstructure and phase composition of fly ash obviously and the activation and modification by the sulfuric acid can improve the surface area significantly. Different modifiers have great effects on the relative content of the major elements in fly ash.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Bath Deposition of ZnSe Thin Films: Investigations of the Growth Conditions

Ho Soonmin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/23356

The main objective of this work was to deposit zinc selenide thin films onto glass substrate by using chemical bath deposition technique. ZnSe films could be used in solar cell applications. The chemical bath deposition method was chosen due to have many advantages if compared to other deposition techniques. Zinc acetate and sodium selenosulphate were used to provide the zinc and selenide ions, respectively. In this work, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and UV-Visible spectrophotometer technique were applied in order to study the properties of obtained ZnSe films which prepared under various pH values ranged from 10.2 to 11.2. The zinc rich content could be observed at these pH values as indicated in EDX results. The band gap was determined by using absorption spectra. The band gap was increased from 2.7 to 2.85 eV as the pH was increased from 10.2 to 11.2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Biodiesel from Calabash Seed Oil

H. Ibrahim, J. N. Agwara, Y. Tukur, K. O. Nwanya, D. C. Nwakuba, S. Ayilara, O. B. Adegbola, A. S. Zanna, U. A. Aliyu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25472

Biodiesel has gained support and recognition as a fuel to replace and blending agent with fossil diesel. In search of non-edible seed oil feedstock that can be used for biodiesel production, an investigation was carried out with calabash seed oil. This is the type of calabash used by Arugungun fishers and Fulani women fresh cow milk hawkers. The seed yielded 39.3% oil by mechanical press. The oil was transesterified with methanol using heterogeneous catalyst (magnesium oxide supported by alumina) with catalyst loading of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4% (w/w of oil) at 60ºC for 60 minutes. The products had esters content of 90.43, 77.92, 93.64, 96.00 and 83.48% respectively. The viscosity falls between 5.0 and 5.7 mm2/s which is within ASTM and EN standards. The biodiesel yield of 61.8, 62.3, 69.7, 69.5 and 78.1% were also recorded. This oil can be a potential for biodiesel production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Two Step and Regression Re-aging Heat Treatment of Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg Alloy Applied in Cigarette Making Machines

Hao Wang, Jianbo Zhan, Zhenhua Yu, Jiang Yu, Yafeng Ji, Tao Wang, Yao Yu, Muyan Li, Danfeng He, Hongkui Zhang, Rongrong Fu, Na Zan, Wei Ding, Liang Cheng, Baoshan Yue, Han Zheng, Zhiqiang Li, Li Gao

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26486

Deformation scheme and pre-heat treatment of Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg aluminum alloy is chosen, homogenizing annealing at 415℃ for 1h, cooling to 200℃ in furnace at a cooling rate of less than 30℃/ h and then cooling to room temperature to make Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg aluminum alloy annealed fully. Heat treatment tests of Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg aluminum alloy mainly consisting of rolling and aging were conducted, and the optimum peak aging mechanism is 120℃/20 h. Through comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties with different deformation and aging mechanism, effect of deformation rates and aging mechanism on properties of Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg aluminum alloy was analyzed, and optimum double-peak aging mechanism is 110℃/7h+170℃/16 h. Orthogonal experiments were carried out to analyze mechanical and electrical properties of tested materials before and after deformation, and effect of aging mechanism on Al-5.2%Zn-2.3%Mg Al alloy was analyzed, and the optimum regression aging mechanism is 120℃/20 h+170℃/40 min+120℃/20 h.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laboratory Preparation of the Precursor for Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

O. D. Ogundare, M. O. Adeoye, A. R. Adetunji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25749

The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was investigated via the laboratory preparation of the precursor from the precipitated gold using sodium cyanide (NaCN) and cyanide solution from cassava. Characterization studies are carried out using TEM and XRD. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out using citrate reduction method as modified for the purpose of this research. TEM images reveal that spherical shaped and well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the size range between 18 nm – 24 nm were produced successfully. The XRD confirm the crystallinity of the gold nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Slow Release System Using Chitosan-Alginate Nanoparticles with Various Methods for Curcumin

Ageng Trisna Surya Pradana Putra, Dwi Siswanta, Adhitasari Suratman

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25989

Biodegradable polymeric materials have been used as a drug delivery system due to its encapsulation, release system and less toxic properties. Chitosan-alginate nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic pre-gelation of alginate core, followed by polyelectrolyte complexation of chitosan and curcumin was chosen as a model drug.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles as carriers for curcumin using various methods.

Methodology: This preparation was divided into 4 methods to produce Alginate-Calcium-Chitosan (ACaK), Alginate-Chitosan-Calcium (AKCa), Chitosan-Alginate-Calcium (KACa) and Alginate-Chitosan (AK) nanoparticles. The amount of drug entrapped was determined by shaking the solution and then supernatant was analyzed for drug loading by measuring the absorbance, morphology, particle sizes and kinetics.

Results: The encapsulation efficiency was up to 85% in higher drug-polymer ratio and the effect of egg-box model made diameter of nanoparticles between 51 and 90 nm. The kinetic model of desorption for Alginate-Calcium-Chitosan, Alginate-Chitosan-Calcium and Chitosan-Alginate-Calcium nanoparticles followed Korsmeyer-Peppas.

Conclusion: This study suggests that these materials serve as suitable for uptake in capillary due to their nano-sized range and could stay long time into bloodstream.