Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Ionic Interactions in Solution and Influence of Alkyl Chain Cation – Solvent on Water Structure in Ethanol – Water Mixture by Magnetic Float Densitometer

Indu Saxena, Rikkam Devi, Vijay Kumar, Sadhana Gautam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26167

The densities of the binary solvent mixtures and its salt solutions have been measured by one of the recently modified techniques, namely Magnetic Float Densitometer. The partial molar volume or apparent molar volume ϕv and at infinite dilution are determined by ϕv0 values of solution mixtures for some tetra alkyl ammonium iodide salts from aqueous to non aqueous binary solvent mixture of Water – Ethanol system. The ϕv values showed positive and large for all the tetra alky ammonium salts in all the compositions of binary mixture solution. This is due to, the presence of weak ion- ion interactions between the components of the mixtures. The value of ϕv increases on decreasing the concentration of ethanol. The value of slope Sv also showed positive for Et4NI and Pr4NI salt solution whereas it is negative for Bu4NI and Pen4NI salts solution. This is due to the presence of specific molecular interactions that will lead to increase in electrostriction with the presence of water in the solution mixture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Toxic Methyl Violet 2B Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Artocarpus heterophyllus (Jackfruit) Seed as an Adsorbent

Muhammad Khairud Dahri, Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh, Linda B. L. Lim

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27127

The potential of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) seed (JS) as an adsorbent to remove methyl violet 2B (MV) dye was investigated using batch experiment method. Surface morphology and functional groups of JS were analyzed in order to characterize the adsorbent. The adsorption experiments were carried out by varying the pH, dye concentration, contact time, ionic strength and temperature. Adsorption isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics were also studied to further understand the adsorption process. Isotherm data was described using three isotherm models of which the Langmuir model best represent the experimental data with maximum adsorption capacity of 126.7 mg g-1. Pseudo 2nd order described the adsorption mechanism and intraparticle diffusion was not the rate limiting step. Regeneration studies showed that JS was able to maintain good adsorption of MV dye even after a few cycles.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation into the Effect of Some Selected pH Control Chemicals {Ca(OH)2, NaHCO3 and CaCO3} on Batch Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Case Study of Jimeta Metropolis

Ojo Samuel, Baba Mohammed, Aaron K. Bakut

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/21586

The large organic matter of solid waste such as agricultural and municipal solid waste offer great potential for biogas production. This work has been carried out to investigate the effect of some selected pH control chemicals on anaerobic digestion process which is expected to increase the yield of biogas from the digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The different pH control chemicals used in this work are NaHCO3, CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2, which gave the following results (yield) 7350 cm3/162.60 g V.S, 2500 cm3/162.60 g V.S and 0 cm3/162.60 g V.S of Biogas respectively in comparism with the controlled digester which yielded 600 cm3/162.60 g V.S after digestion for a period of 30 days. The result obtained shows that NaHCO3 is the most suitable to be used as a pH control chemical in comparism to the others and most effective in converting volatile solid contained in the organic fraction and equally served as the best buffer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Alumina Fibre by Annealing Method Using Coir Fibre

Alveera Khan, Mohammad Ayaz Ahmad, Shirish Joshi, Vyacheslav Lyashenko

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25648

The present study reports the synthesis of coir fibre treated with alumina salt by using of the annealing method. In this study chemical treatment of coir fibre has been done using a nitro compounds at higher temperature. The composite formed after the chemical treatment and has been characterized by X-ray diffraction for the determination of peaks of composites, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and FTIR technique. The successful synthesis of alumina fibre has been confirmed that chemically treated fibre is not fully bonded but is in poor contact with the matrix. Chemically treated fibre could not adhere with the epoxy matrix and therefore interfacial bonding is poor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis of Chemically Treated Bagasse Fibre

Josephine Taiye Omole, Benjamin Dauda

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/24912

Bagasse is a natural fibre obtained as a by-product of sugarcane milling process. As with other natural fibres it has the drawback of being hydrophilic; this research seeks to explore the use of chemical modification on the fibre surface as a possible remedy to this. The chemicals used were sodium hydroxide, acetic acid, acrylic acid, and potassium permanganate. The treatments were carried out for 3 hours at 70°C except for sodium hydroxide treatment which was done at room temperature using 2wt% concentration. The fibre analysis revealed that the potassium permanganate treatment was most effective in reducing the OH group visible at a peak around 3400 cm-1. Also the peaks showing lignin, pectin, and hemicelluose at 1250-1260 cm-1, 1600-1650 cm-1, and 1720-1750 cm-1 respectively were also removed which were all present in the untreated fibre. The SEM studies revealed that the roughness of the fibre was imparted by the effect of the various chemicals to varying degrees with potassium permanganate treated fibre becoming rougher as compared to the untreated fibre and other chemically modified fibres.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Oil-Modified Alkyd Resin from Epoxidized Neem Oil

I. R. Jack, A. U. Anya, O. F. Osagie

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26431

The aim and objective of this work is to synthesize a greener alkyd resin by substituting petroleum based epoxides in alkyd resin modification. Chemical transformation of the existing functional group present in neem oil via epoxidation, epoxy functionality was inserted and used as substitute to petroleum based epoxide. Epoxidization of neem oil was carried out with per-acetic generated in-situ at 50°C. Alkyd resin with oil-length of 64.5% was synthesized from the epoxidized neem oil ENO. Polyesterification reaction of the oil was carried out using glycerol and phthalic anhydride at 250°C to synthesize epoxidized neem oil alkyd resin ENOMAR. The resin where cured using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide MEKP and 12% cobalt naphthalate in toluene; this was applied uniformly on a different glass plate substrate and heated in an oven at 80°C and 120°C respectively at different time intervals. Films properties such as drying time, set to touch time and chemical resistance of the resins were determined. Minimum drying and set to touch time was recorded at 15 and 9 hrs at 120°C for 120 mins, while minimum value of 17 and 11 hrs was also recorded at 80°C for 120 min. Chemical resistance of the resin show good resistance in 10% HCl and distilled water. The resin also shows relatively good resistance in 1% NaCl and a poor result in 1% NaOH. Infrared analysis result of the resin shows broad and sharp peaks at 1732 cm-1, 2928 cm-1 and 3465 cm-1. Assessments of the properties show that epoxidized neem oil modified alkyd resin ENOMAR has film properties that are characteristic of good alkyd resins.