Open Access Short Research Article

The Influence on Synthetising Mg-Al Hydrotalcite by Using Different Mg and Al Sources as the Precursors

Miao Niu, Mande Qiu, Qingjiao Han, Yidan Wang

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27767

In this paper, Mg-Al hydrotalcite crystals were synthesized using the different Mg sources and Al sources as the precursor via hydrothermal method. The effects of different Mg and Al sources on the microstructure and the growth of LDHs were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning election microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), simultaneity. Besides, according to the ligand theory, its growth mechanism was discussed. The research indicated that the better LDHs crystal could been prepared under the condition of pH=12, hydrothermal temperature of 120°C and time of 12 h. The different Mg and Al sources combination had certain influence on the phase, dispersion, regularity, ratio of thickness, purity, size and microstructure of LDHs products. When the Mg sources was fixed for MgCl2, choosing Al2O3, Al(NO3)3 and AlCl3 as Al sources respectively, the obtained LDHs with poor purity, regularity dispersion and crystallinity were synthesized when Al2O3 was used as Al sources; but the LDHs had better regularity, dispersion, crystalline and purity when Al(NO3)3 and AlCl3 were chosed as Al sources. The reason could be that the different solubility and polarity of anion caused the slight variation of products microstructure. Compared to MgCl2 with high dissolvability, when the Mg sources was fixed for Mg(NO3)2, choosing Al(NO3)3 and AlCl3 as Al sources respectively, it is more advantageous to getting LDHs with better crystalline, regularity, and smaller in size. When both Mg sources and Al sources had higher solubility, the synthesized LDHs were with higher crystalline and regularity. The EDS analysis results showed that the purity of LDHs synthesized with Al2O3 had poor solubility. In addition, LDHs prepared by Mg sources and Al sources with higher solubility do not contain any other anionic impurities, and the average ratio of Mg/Al is about 3, which is very close to the theoretical value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate Analysis and Toxicological Studies of Polyalthia longifolia Seed Flour in Dietary Formulation of Albino Rats

Ibironke Adetolu Ajayi, Emmanuel Nnamdi Ifedi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/19789

Aim: A short term toxicological study of Polyalthia longifolia seed flour in dietary formulation of albino rats was conducted and investigated in order to determine its suitability as an additive in feed supplement and formulation.

Methodology: The effect of the dietary formulation on the physical appearance, feed intake and weight gain of the rats was determined. The proximate analysis, mineral composition, haematological and blood biochemistry were determined and calculated using standard methods of analysis.

Results: The proximate analysis revealed that the seed flour has high carbohydrate and moderate protein contents. The values of 59.66±0.19% for carbohydrate, 12.40±0.25% for protein, 11.90±0.04% for crude fiber, 90.80% for dry matter were obtained for P. longifolia seed flour. The seed flour was found to contain high concentration of iron, manganese, zinc, copper and potassium. Other mineral present such as magnesium, calcium and sodium were very low. Nickel, chromium and lead were not present. The low Na/K ratio (0.03) obtained showed that the seed flour could probably reduce high blood pressure. Proximate composition of the compounded feed both for the control and the test groups pointed out that there were significance differences in crude protein and crude fibre contents of the feeds compounded. Weekly monitoring of the rats showed good physical appearance and steady weight gain with no mortality recorded during the period of the experiment. The average weight gain per rat at the end of the experiment was shown to be 86.58 g for control rats and 90.00 g for test ones.

Conclusion: Haematological analysis of the rats in both groups showed that they were not anemic and there was no significant difference at p≤0.05 in their blood biochemistry. There was no lesion found in the sections of the kidney, liver and heart of the rats.  P. longifolia seed flour seemed to be a good supplement in livestock feed formulation. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Spectral Properties and Anti-tumor Evaluations of Some Novel 2-substituted- 1,3-Thiazole Derivatives

Asmaa S. Salman

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26694

Reaction of N4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazole-2,4-diamine 1 with ammonium thiocyanate, phenyl isothiocyanate, acetic anhydride, phenacyl bromide, 2-chloro -N- (4-chlorophenyl) acetamide and acetic anhydride / cyanoacetic acid afforded the corresponding N-[ 4-(4-chlorophenyl)amino-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]thiourea 2, N-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)amino-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-N'-phenylthiourea 3, N-acetyl-  N-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)amino-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]acetamide 7,2-(1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino)-1 phenylethanone derivative 8, 2-(1,3-thiazol-2-ylamino)- N-(4-chlorophenyl)acetamide derivative 9 and N-(1,3-thiazol -2-yl)-2-cyanoacetamide  derivative 11. Reaction 1 with phenyl isothiocyanate in basic DMF yielded the  intermediate  potassium  salt 14, then treatment of intermediate 14 with α-halocarbonyl compounds such as ethyl chloroacetate and/ or 2-chloro-N-(4-chlorophenyl) acetamide afforded ethyl {N'-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-N-phenyl-carbamimidoyl)thio}acetate15 and 2-[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl N'-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-N-phenyl-imidothiocarbamate16 respectively. Reaction 1 with 1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde 17 or 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde 18 afforded N2-[(1H-pyrazol-4-yl) methylene]-1,3-thiazole-2,4-diamine19 and N2-[)1H-indol-3-yl(methylene]-1,3-thiazol-2,4-diamine 20 respectively. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis and spectra data. Some of the newly synthesized compounds were screened in vitro for their anti-tumor activities against human cancer cell line MCF-7.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation, Phytochemical and Functional Groups Assay of Bombax brevicuspe Stem: A Tropical Timber

I. P. Udeozo, C. M. Ejikeme, A. N. Eboatu, H. I. Kelle

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27047

The elucidation of Bombax brevicuspe wood was analysed for thermal and physico-chemical techniques. The results obtained were as follows: afterglow time 253.67 sec, flame duration 113.33 sec, flame propagation rate 20.3x10-2cm.s-1, ignition time 2.33 sec, thermal conductivity 51.34x102Umoh/cm, electrical conductivity 5.3x10-3Sm-1, ash content 3.4%, moisture content 29.97%, oven dry density, water imbibitions (at different time intervals: 30 mins 46.6%, 5hrs 87.6% and 24 hrs 148.9%), etc, These results showed it to be a good timber suitable for various construction purposes. The elemental analysis obtained through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) indicated the absence of Ca, as well as the presence of Na, K, Pb, Mg, Zn, As, Cu, Hg and Cd in their decreasing order of magnitude respectively as follows: 1.07%, 0.08%, 0.08%, 0.07%, 0.05%, 0,02%, 0.01%, 0.01% and 0.003%. Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) analysis gave Retardation factor (Rf) value of 0.62 in the chloroform-methanol extract. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of all the tested secondary metabolites except steroids which indicated its therapeutic ability. Their proportions are indicated thus; saponins (10.2%), tannins (920 Mg/100 g), flavonoids (8.0%), carbohydrates (1.62 Mg/g), proteins (1.55%), glycosides (356 Mg/100 g) and alkaloids (5.6%). The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Ultraviolet (UV) spectra suggested that the active compound might be 1,2,3-trisubstituted aromatic compound with C=O, O-H and C=N groups attached. The chemical components analysis showed the presence of cellulose 43%, hemicelluloses 20%, lignin 29% and other constituents in their right proportion. From the results, Bombax brevicuspe wood could be used for various construction purposes and it also poses some medicinal ability due to the presence of secondary metabolites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Technology for Disposal of Chemical Waste

Nedyalko Ivanov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26698

Here a new decision how to convert hazardous substances into less harmful compounds is provided - an integrated technological scheme that will help to prevent from the risk of negative impact of the hazardous substances on the environment and people. Article concerns the probability of occurrence of environmental problems that may arise as a result of the storage in warehouses of chemicals classified as waste due to the occurrence of natural disasters such as flooding and earthquakes. These chemicals have an expiring date after which they are classified as hazardous waste. It is unacceptable to keep chemicals in landfills or sewage network as they may react with each other, and this would lead to irreversible consequences on the environment. After the chemical conversion by this integrated technological scheme the resultant compounds are salts that are safe. Spectral analysis of the products was carried out by IR spectrophotometer Hazmat, demonstrating the conversion of the hazardous materials into new chemical compounds. This new technological development can be used for chemical transformations of many other substances that are not mentioned in this article. The resulting compounds can be used as raw materials in many industries such as chemical, metallurgical, glass, textile and other industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption of Poly-phenolic Compounds of Optimized Extract of the Bark of Pittosporaceae by Pillared Clay in View of the Formulation of Powdered Insecticides

Massaï Harouna, Momeni Jean, R. Djakba, Wangmene Bagamla, Constant Tcheka, Joseph Ketcha Mbadcam, Benoît Benguellah Loura

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27055

The aim of this work is to formulate a powdery insecticide by adsorption of optimized poly-phenol extracts by aluminum pillared clay of Boboyo; in order to reduce the loss of post agricultural crops by preserving the environment. Different parameters (pH, initial concentration of adsorbate, temperature, and mass of adsorbent) those influence the formulation of the insecticide were optimized by adsorption of the gallic acid on the pillared clay. The study revealed that the maximum quantity of adsorption is reached after 10 minutes, it is believed that the quantities adsorbed with the increase in the concentration of the adsorbate and quantities adsorbed decreases with the increase of the mass of the clay, the pH and temperature. The kinetic model best suited for the adsorption of gallic acid is that of pseudo-second order. The adsorbed quantity from the monolayer coverage deduced from the Langmuir model is 11.82 mg/g. Thus, the formulation powdery snow of the insecticide is obtained by adsorption of an extract of poly- phenols on the clay materials while respecting the optimal condition provided by the gallic acid. The test insecticides of this formulation powder on the weevils of maize have shown that the lethal dose is 4%. This quantity induces a mortality rate of Sitophilus zeamais of 49±12.6% and an LD50 = 0.20% (R2= 0.63) on 7 days compared to Malathion which is considered as the standard insecticide with a mortality rate of 100% on 7 days.