Open Access Short communication

Mechanochemical Synthesis of a Nano-structured Copper(II) Metal-organic Framework as Precursor for the Preparation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

Mostafa Yousefi, Samaneh Soradi Zeid

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27789

In this report, nano-powders of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), were synthesized by mechanochemical method for one model system and its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The thermal stability of synthesized compound has been studied by thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The CuO nanoparticles were obtained by thermolysis of MOF at 180°C with oleic acid as a surfactant. The obtained CuO nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SEM to depict the phase and morphology. This study demonstrates that the MOF compounds may be suitable precursors for the simple one-pot preparation of nano-scale metal oxide materials with different and interesting morphologies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transesterification of Jatropha Oil Devoid of Co-product, Glycerol

Haruna Ibrahim, Abdulkarim S. Ahmed, Idris M. Bugaje, Ibrahim A. Mohameed-Dabo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26425

The transesterification process breaks down triglycerides into alkanoates and glycerol back bones which in turn react with alcohol in the presences of suitable catalyst to produce monoalkyl esters and glycerin. During the transesterification reaction, the glycerol backbone of triglyceride is substituted by alkyl group from alcohol forming fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol as the major liquid products. A study was carried out to determine the possibility of producing biodiesel by transesterification reaction without the co-product, glycerol. Transesterification reactions were performed at 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65°C for 50, 60, 70, and 80 minutes. The feed stocks were Jatropha curcas seed oil, methanol in the molar ratio of 3:1 (methanol: oil) and 0.4% bulk calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst. Each product was analyzed with GC-MS to determine the methyl esters and glycerol content. Only two products at 65°C had glycerol of 2.228 and 0.21%. The average methyl ester contents were 96.72, 96.23, 97.36 and 79.80% at 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65°C respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance of Biosurfactant Produced From Pineapple Waste for Improving Oil Recovery

O. A. Falode, T. A. Oluwadero, B. Nwadike, O. E. Fagade

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27205

Synthetic chemical surfactants have been found to be usually toxic and hardly degraded by microorganisms. Hence, attention had been shown towards biosurfactants due to their biocompatibility, lower toxicity, higher stability, stability to extreme temperature and pH. This study evaluated biosurfactant produced from pineapple waste for enhanced oil recovery using hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria from heavy oil contaminated soil.

The main biosurfactant producing bacteria isolates obtained were Bacillus sp. 73S, Bacillus sp 73M, Bacillus sp 69B, Pseudomonas sp. S3 and Pseudomonas sp S9.  Routine core analyses and capillary pressure measurements were determined for core samples retrieved from the Niger-Delta sandstones. Oil recovery efficiency was measured from surface tension and surfactant adsorption measurements and the recovery performance was compared.

Average porosities of the core samples ranged between 26 and 27%, air permeability from 152.96 to 232.725md, while the initial water saturation were 90.9 and 75% respectively; crude oil saturation before coreflooding were 80% and 59.45% respectively. Irreducible water saturations were 6.5 and 47% of the initial water in place respectively. Adsorption of surfactants after 24 hours for chemical and biosurfactant showed an increase in surface tension by 3.4 and 5.8dynes/cm respectively. Percentage oil recovered was found to be 87.2% for the biosurfactant while the chemical surfactant increased recovery by 67% in the sandstone formation.

Biosurfactants showed higher effectiveness when it comes to surface tension and interfacial tension reduction than the chemical surfactants; hence increase in capillary number and oil recovery.  However, the chemical surfactant showed more stability with time than the biosurfactants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Pre-treatment Conditions of Water Hyacinth Leaf, Stem and Root for Bioethanol Production

O. Adeyemi, O. O. Olayebi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27091

Sustainable and renewable biofuels as well as coastal preservation are important to Nigeria. By managing water hyacinth in canals and lakes in Delta state, the biomass of this fast growing aquatic plant can reduce coastal erosion by absorbing wave energy, and remediate waste water through bioabsorption of contaminants, while also providing a source of biofuel. This study explores the best methods for harvesting and drying water hyacith as well as breaking down the lignocellulosic materials into simple sugars fermentable for ethanol production. Pretreatment of water hyacinth leaf, stem and root with 2% v/v of acids (HCOOH, HCl and H2SO4) and 3% v/v of bases (NaOH and KOH) was carried out. Samples were also pretreated with varying concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5% v/v) of the individual pretreatment solutions. This research showed that water hyacinth leaf, stem and root produced 10.55, 7.11 and 9.03 mg glucose per g sample respectively after pretreatment with 4% v/v H2SO4 3% v/v HCl and 3% v/v KOH respectively. The future interest of this research is ethanol production and the result shows that water hyacinth could produce a high ethanol yield from fermentable sugars based on current work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals in Public Tap Water in Ibadan Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

Funmilayo Joke Okparaocha, Peter Olaoye Oyeleke, Olushola Ayoola Abiodun

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26146

The quality of public taps water transiting from the point of distribution to the end users was analyzed in this study to assess the level of chemical contamination en route, and the result obtained were compared with WHO and NIS/SON recommended standards for drinking water. Sixteen samples were collected from five different areas and the distribution point following standard procedure. The water samples were digested and analyzed for physicochemical properties and heavy metals concentration. The heavy metals determination was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Perkin Elmer A Analyst 200 model. In all the samples analyzed, the physicochemical properties which include pH, Total Solids (TS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) were within the WHO and SON recommended limits. The heavy metals determined were lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). All the heavy metals determined were within the recommended limits at the distribution point except Pb 0.030 mg/l. Values higher than the recommended limits were observed for Pb (0.060 to 0.290 mg/l) and Cd (0.002 to 0.008 mg/l) at consumers end. The lowest value for lead 0.030 mg/l was observed at the distribution point and highest at Apata area. The highest value of cadmium was observed at Molete area and lowest at Eleyele area. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the public drinking water sampled as compared to the one obtained from the distribution point suggest likely contamination of the water during transit which may be due to the effect of rust pipes and fixtures, contamination from run offs from dumpsites and roadsides which enters the water through burst pipes. Therefore constant monitoring of the supply and distribution system is essential in order to safeguard the health of the consumers of this public potable water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Thermal Decomposition of the Mixed Metal Acetylacetonates

Julius Numbonui Ghogomu, Edwin Akongnwi Nforna, John Ngolui Lambi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28010

Aims: To synthesis lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, La0.8Sr0.2CoyFe1-yO3-d (y=0, 0.2, 0.4) nanopowders via metal-organic precursors (acetylacetonates), determine the composition, structure and magnetic properties.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Noxious Chemistry and Environmental Engineering – University of Dschang and Magnetic Materials Unit, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune – India between November 2013 and March 2015.

Methodology: Mixed lanthanum strontium cobalt iron acetylacetonate precursors were synthesized at 55°C by co-precipitation and heated at 450°C to undergo thermal decomposition in order to form mixed lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite alongside secondary phases. They were further calcined at 1000°C to form single perovskite phase.  The structure, morphology and elemental analyses were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy respectively. The magnetic properties were determined at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

Results: X-ray diffraction studies of heat-treated La0.8Sr0.2CoyFe1-yO3-d showed that single phase nano-sized perovskite powders were formed with structures varying from orthorhombic (y = 0, 0.2) to rhombohedral (y =0.4) as the Co content increased. Microstructure analysis indicated polycrystalline spherical nanoparticles with agglomeration tendencies. Elemental analysis by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy indicated that the desired metals in their stoichiometric proportions were obtained. From the measured hysteresis loops of La0.8Sr0.2CoyFe1-yO3 at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer, all the compositions exhibited anti ferromagnetism and a weak ferromagnetic component along the c-axis as a result of the complex interaction of different valences of the transition metal ions.  Increasing coercive fields were observed with increasing Co content while spontaneous magnetization and saturation magnetization decreased with increased in Co substitution.  

Conclusion: La0.8Sr0.2CoyFe1-yO3 was successfully prepared by the thermal decomposition method. Their structural and magnetic properties were found to vary with the Co content. These results show that the synthesized materials possess potential magnetic applications in data storage, logic, magnetic bubble memory, magnetic sensors.