Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Boric Acid on Fiberboard Made from Wood/Secondary Fiber Mixtures: Part 2. Utilization of Recycled Old Corrugated Container Fibers

Ali Ihsan Kaya, Halil Turgut Sahin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27757

It was realized that both boric acid (BA) and secondary fibers (S) from Old Corrugated Container (OCC) negative impact on thickness swelling (TS) properties of boards in water. However, the highest Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) values of both type boards were found at 90/10 Wood/Secondary fiber (W/S) ratio with values of 2966 MPa and 1009 MPa, respectively.  It is clear that increasing secondary fiber content effects on lowering MOE values in some level.  However, except of the boards of B10 and B10a which produced only from secondary fibers, all other experimental boards show higher MOE than standard value of 600 MPa.

The secondary fibers from recycled OCC can be useful for improving sound (acoustic) properties some level. Interestingly, the highest sound absorption (SA) coefficient of 0.91 and 0.81 were also found at 90/10 (W/S) mixture, respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Morphological Study of Microfibrillated Cellulose Prepared from Waste Cotton Linter

M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun, M. Rahman, G. M. Arifuzzaman Khan, M. Helal Uddin, S. M. Abdur Razzaque, J. A. Foisal, M. Hasanuzzaman, S. Rahman, M. Shamsul Alam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27903

In this work microfibrillated Cellulose (MFC) was prepared from cotton linter which was collected from a textile mills in Pabna, Bangladesh. MFC was characterized by WAXD, FTIR, SEM and OM measurements. MFC was synthesized by several steps such as alkali treatment, followed by NaClO2 bleaching and acid hydrolysis. The acid hydrolysis was conducted by two different sulphuric acid (H2SO4) concentrations (3N and 5N). The oxidation reaction took place during the MFC preparation by using 5N of acid which was detected by FTIR spectra. The crystallinity index of MFCs were measured from the peaks at (2θ angles) 14.6 and 22.60 of WAXD curves. The WAXD curves show enrichment in the proportion of crystalline cellulose in MFCs, which manifests significant conversion of cellulose-I to cellulose-II. A significant change in morphology of MFC was clearly observed at SEM and OM images due to chemical treatment of cotton linter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Xylopic Acid Derivatives

William Kofie, John Peter Fetse, Reimmel Kwame Adosraku

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27962

Aims: To synthesize and characterize novel ester, amide and ether (from deacetyl) derivatives of xylopic acid.

Methodology: Base catalysed ester formation was employed in the synthesis of the esters while direct coupling with HBTU was employed in the synthesis of the amide derivative. Deacetylation of xylopic acid was achieved by refluxing the acid with 10% methanolic KOH. The structure of xylopic acid and its derivatives were determined using 1H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and IR spectroscopy.

Results: Xylopic acid was isolated from the dried fruits of Xylopia aethiopica at a yield of 0.13%w/w. The various derivatives of xylopic acid, namely esters, amide and deacetylated analogues were synthesized in moderate to high yields (47.11- 93.52%) and characterized.

Conclusion: Xylopic acid was isolated from the dried fruits of Xylopia aethiopica, crystallized and characterized. The isolated crystals were used to synthesize novel derivatives of xylopic acid and these were also characterized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Impacts of Pharmaceutical Effluent from KP Pharmaceutical Industry, Nigeria

A. C. Udebuani, A. O. Ofoma, O. Otitoju, P. N. Abara, T. N. Ezejiofor, M. C. Chukwuma

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27604

The potential genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water effluent from a pharmaceutical industry in Ogidi, Anambra State, Nigeria was evaluated using Allium cepa Linn assay. This is an alternate first-tier assay to experiments on animals for preliminary toxicity screening in accordance with the council directive 86/609/EEC art-23 that encourages research on alternative techniques to animals’ use. The cytotoxic effects were evaluated on the basis of strong growth retardation in high concentrations of the effluent that resulted in root growth inhibition. Data collected were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Results obtained showed that root growth inhibition was 5.33 to 1.33 while decrease in mitotic index from 68.4 to 52.8 which were statistically significant (p<0.05). Genotoxicity based on chromosomal aberrations induced in the onion root tips include sticky chromosomes, bridges, laggard, vagrant, polar deviation and polyploidy. Concentrations of heavy metals Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu, in the contaminated samples were 0.010, 0.006, 0.003, 0.300, 0.018 and 0.020 g/kg respectively. These concentrations far exceeded the EPA recommended limit. Chromium concentration in the effluent was found to be the highest and may be responsible for the observed genotoxic effects on the onion root tip cells. This study therefore, establishes the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this pharmaceutical waste on the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitive Performance of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose and Potassium Iodide on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Sulphuric Acid Environment

S. C. Nwanonenyi, O. Ogbobe, I. C. Madufor, E. E. Oguzie

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28250

The inhibitive performance of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and and its combination with potassium iodide (KI) on mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 acid solution was studied using the potentiodynamic polarization, gravimetric measurement technique and theoretical computations. Weight loss results obtained indicate that the HPC and its combination with KI functioned as a good inhibitor in sulphuric acid environment with inhibition efficiency of 76.43% and 89.73% respectively, and inhibition efficiency increased with concentration. Changes observed in polarization parameters suggest the adsorption of HPC on the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films. The adsorption characteristics of the inhibitor were approximated by Langmuir isotherm. Synergistic effect increased the inhibition efficiency in the presence of halide additives and the values of the synergistic factor with KI were higher than unity indicating that both additives act cooperatively to enhance inhibition performance. The Fukui functions revealed that HPC adsorbed on the corroding mild steel surface through multiple OH groups, propyl groups and aromatic structure. The experimental results corroborated with results from theoretical studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Sulfomethylated Urea, Thiourea, Aniline Derivatives and Their Application

Hasan Ergashevich Kodirov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26805

A prospective study on the synthesis of sulfomethylated urea, thiourea and aniline is presented. Experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure. The obtained products and compositions based thereon can be used as inhibitors of mineral scales. Products were prepared at four different composition of components and named DASS-1 to DASS-4. Optimal conditions for the production of desired products are defined. All synthesized products have inhibitory properties, but their individual application for waters with high hardness do not provide the desired result and approximately 50-80 % lower than the standard reference industrial scale inhibitors. However, high effective inhibitors were developed through preparing a composition in equimolecular proportions of the synthesized products with IOMS-1 and OEDP. The inhibition efficiency of the product of DASS-1+OEDP with a concentration of 3.0+2.0 reaches 96.5% at a water hardness of 4-5 mEq/L (about 30% efficiency) and 92.0% at 13-14 mEq/L (10% efficiency). It is proved that the inhibitory properties of complexons (chelating agents) were clearly affected by the denticity of complexing ligands.