Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Treatments of Cotton Linter Cellulose Fiber for Composite Application

M. Rahman, G. M. Arifuzzaman Khan, Md. Helal Uddin, S. M. Abdur Razzaque, Md. Shamsul Alam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28730

In the present research work, cellulose fiber was isolated from cotton linter (CL) collected from local textile mills of Kushtia district, Bangladesh. To remove dirt and impurities, CL was pre-treated with NaOH and NaClO2. Fiber was treated with a number of chemicals such as dicumyl peroxide (DCP), acetic anhydride (AA) and acrylamide (AAm). The changes of cellulose molecules during the chemical treatments were detected by FTIR spectra. The crystallinity index of pretreated and treated fibers were measured from the peaks at 14.6 and 22.6 (2θ angles) of WAXD curves. The proportion of crystalline part was increased in case of treated cellulose fiber, which manifests significant conversion of cellulose-I to cellulose-II. A significant variation of thermal properties of pretreated and treated fibers were also observed by TGA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Conversion of Calcium Nitrate Solution Obtained from Kyzylkum Phosphorite with Ammonium Carbonate

A. J. Allamuratova, A. U. Erkaev, A. M. Reymov

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28146

The effect of the concentration of the amount of ammonium and calcium nitrate, the ratio of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen in the solution on the process of conversion of calcium nitrate formed during the processing of low-grade phosphorite with nitric acid has been studied. It has been shown that increasing the ratio of ammonia nitrogen to nitrate and concentrations of amount salt in the initial solution of ammonium and calcium nitrate promotes the process of conversion of calcium nitrate into calcium carbonate and ammonium nitrate.

It has been studied that the effect of various process parameters on the process of filtration and sedimentation of calcium carbonate’s sediments. Under optimum conditions, the filtration rate of the resulting calcium carbonate is 2-3 t/(m2 h) in wet cake.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Simulation of Tricarbonyl (1-4-η-5-exo-N-X,X-dimethylpyridino-cyclohexa-1,3-diene) Iron Complexes:- A Semi Empirical PM6 Approach

O. F. Akinyele, T. I. Odiaka, I. A. Adejoro

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/27275

We report herein the simulation of Tricarbonyl (1-4-η-5-exo-N-X,X-dimethyl pyridino-cyclohexa-1,3-diene) iron complexes that were carried out on the theoretical ground state  geometries, electronic, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies using semi empirical PM6 method. The geometries, electronic states, thermodynamic properties and vibrational frequencies were discussed. The calculated infra red vibrational frequency of all optimized geometries reveal imaginary  frequency values indicating that they are dynamically unstable.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Pent-aza Phenoxazines: A New Group of Anti-inflammatory Heterocycles. Their Effect and Other Analgesics on Pain

E. M. Odin, P. K. Onojah, L. E. S. Akpanisi, B. O. Akabueze

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/25008

The synthesis of novel 1-amino-7-methyl-2,4,6,8,9-pent-azaphenoxazine (13) and 2-aldehyde-7-methyl-4-phenyl-3,4,6,8,9-pent-aza phenoxazine (17) is reported. The pent-aza compound (13) was prepared by suspending acetamidine hydrochloride (8) in ethanol and treated with anhydrous hydrazine at 0°C to afford a pink solid compound acetamidrazone (9). Treatment of compound (9) with oxalyl chloride and heated at reflux, yielded 6-methyl-1,4,5-triazine-2,3-dione (10). This compound when reacted with 4,5-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (12) in ethanol, provided a solid 1-amino-7-methyl-2,4,6,8,9- pent-azaphenoxazin (13) in excellent yield. The 2-aldehyde-7-methyl-4-phenyl-3,4,6,8,9- pent-aza phenoxazine (17) was obtained utilizing 3-aldehyde-5-amino-6-hydrxy-1-phenylpyridazine (16) which was produced by refluxing a mixture of furfural and phenylhydrazine in toluene. Treatment of compound (16) with 6-methyl-1,4,5-triazine-2,3.dione (10) in ethanol  gave the pent-aza-phenoxazine (17) in good yield. These compounds were confirmed by IR,1H NMR,13C NMR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry.  The two novel products (13) and (17) were investigated for analgesic actions. The result compared favorably with three known analgesics: Paracetamol, Aspirin and Alabukun (a local analgesic). The doses of 0.125 to 0.150 g/kg injected into adult rabbits intraperetoneally lead to reduction of pain threshold. The result of the anti-inflammatory screening data revealed the dose and time dependant effect of these compounds in the carrageenan induced paw oedema. At time of 120mins, there was complete inhibition of oedema by 95.36% and 97.51% from the compounds 13 and 17 respectively, while the standard drug Zerodol (Aceclofenac) showed inhibition by 57.79%. The ability of these two compounds to antagonize carrageenan-induced oedema was correlated with anti-inflammatory potential.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Some Essential Metallic Elements in Edible Clay from Enyigba in Ebonyi State of Nigeria Using AAS and Experiments with Rabbits

S. P. I. Ogah, T. M. Akpomie, E. O. Nwite

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/26972

Edible clay from Enyigba in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State of Nigeria was analyzed for, Ca, Na, Mg and K, using AAS. The results showed that the sample contains 249.000+1.73 mg/g, 71.960+3.63 mg/g, 198.570+0.90 mg/g and 84.330+2.73 mg/g of the metals respectively. The analyses of the brain, heart, liver, kidney, lungs, skeletal muscle and blood of rabbits post administration of the clay showed that these metals were absorbed into tissues and organs. All the metals had highest absorption in the brain. There was exponential decrease in concentrations with time. The highest elimination rate was observed for Ca across the tissues and organs. The brain had the highest elimination rate with the blood having the least.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of β-Cyclodextrin-Epichlorohydrin Nanospheres: Its Application for Removal of p-nitrophenol

Sema Salgın, Uğur Salgın, Mehmet Ayluçtarhan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/29198

The aim of this work is to investigate synthesis conditions of water insoluble β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) nanospheres that could be useful as an adsorbent to remove very low concentration of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) from water. The effect of several parameters on β-CD polymer synthesis such as β-CD/epichlorohydrin (EPI) mole ratio, reaction temperature and NaOH concentration was investigated. The FTIR-ATR analysis confirmed the formation of β-CD polymer structure with the addition of EPI by preserving the basic β-CD structural units. To determine the optimal synthesis conditions, performances of the synthesized β-CD nanospheres were determined by measuring the adsorption efficiencies of p-NP. On the basis of these results, the optimal synthesis conditions of β-CD nanospheres were 65°C, 40% NaOH (w/w) concentration and β-CD/EPI=1/55 mole ratio. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were fitted on experimental data. It was found that Langmuir model described best for adsorption of p-NP onto β-CD nanospheres. On the basis of the Langmuir analysis, the maximum adsorption capacities were determined to be 17.203 mg p-NP per gram of β-CD nanospheres. The β-CD nanospheres at predetermined optimum reaction conditions were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis. The combination of results from SEM,TEM and BET indicated that the synthesized β-CD nanospheres have a porous and sponge-like structure and 1.54 m2/g specific surface area.