Open Access Short Research Article

Semiconducting Oligomers of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, Thiophene and Thiazole: A Theoretical Study

Sawadogo René, Diendéré Françoise, Guiguemdé Issaka, Ouédraogo Raguilnaba, Sotiropoulos Jean-Marc

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/29235

Organic semiconducting oligomers containing three to nine heterocyclic units and based on 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, thiophene and thiazole have been studied by DFT and TDDFT at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level. The energy of each molecule, those of the frontier orbitals HOMO and LUMO, the width of the band gaps and the optical properties have been calculated. The inter-ring distances, dihedral angles and torsional angles have been elucidated. These molecules are planar π-conjugated systems. The band gaps of the longer oligomers studied range from 2.53 to 2.72 eV and their excitation energies calculated by TDDFT vary from 2.22 to 2.36 eV. Wavelengths of absorption bands of 524 to 556 nm are also obtained by TDDFT. The results of this theoretical study show that these organic molecules have interesting properties and can potentially be used as components in solar cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Residual Polyphenols, Phytate and In-vitro Protein Digestibility of Extruded Sorghum-Bambara Groundnut Blends

David Iordehiin Gbenyi, Iro Nkama, Mamudu Halidu Badau, Nahemiah Danbaba

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28565

Aim: This study was designed and implemented to produce instant breakfast cereals from the blends of sorghum and Bambara groundnut flour through extrusion cooking as a strategy to reduce phytic acid and polyphenol and improve the protein digestibility and solubility.

Methodology: In this study, different blends of Bambara groundnut (10%, 20% and 30%) and sorghum flour were extruded at 20%, 22.5% and 25% moisture levels and 120°C, 140°C and 160°C barrel temperatures using a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology with central composite face-centered design (CCFD) was used to model the residual phytic acid and polyphenols, protein solubility and protein digestibility of the extrudates.

Results: Increasing the barrel temperature caused a reduction in protein solubility, residual polyphenols and phytic acid but increased the in vitro protein digestibility of the extrudates. The coefficients of determination (R2) were 0.96, 0.83, 0.95 and 0.94 for polyphenols, phytic acid, protein solubility and protein digestibility respectively with non-significant lack of fit in all cases. Barrel temperature had the most effect on the responses.

Conclusion: Extrusion cooking in combination with dehulling significantly increased the protein digestibility of sorghum-Bambara groundnut extrudates. The second order polynomial was found appropriate for the prediction of polyphenols, phytic acid and protein digestibility of the sorghum-Bambara groundnut extrudates. The optimum levels of the response variables attainable were 11.32%, 70.0%, 48 mg/100 g and 63.11 mg/100 g respectively for protein solubility, digestibility, residual polyphenols and phytate content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of PVA-NaAlg Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) Hydrogel for Controlled Delivery of Carbidopa

Alarqam Zyaad Tareq

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28990

Polymeric drug delivery systems are new developed technology. They can be used to support patient’s compliance. They can help to maintain uniform drug levels and increase the safety margin for high-potency drugs. Then, they decrease the number of daily doses.

Thus, in this study, Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-Sodium alginate (NaAlg) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels were prepared by using Glutaraldehyde as a crosslinked. The model drug (Carbidopa) was delivered by using emulsification / solvent-evaporation method. Carbidopa was successfully loaded into PVA-NaAlg IPN hydrogels. The prepared IPN hydrogels were characterized by Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy using (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of different process parameters, like degree of swelling and In vitro drug releasing of IPN hydrogel in different phosphate buffer solutions pH (7.1 and 3.9) were studied. The models of kinetics of releasing drug were investigated by using different types of mechanisms (Zero-order, First order, Higuchi’s model and Hixson-Crowell model).

Open Access Original Research Article

Corrosion Resistance and Antimicrobial Activity of Extra- and Intracellular Fe(II) Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Via Aspergillus foetidus ATCC 14916

Nagwa M. Sidkey, Yasser M. Moustafa, Rawhia A. Arafa, Rania E. Morsi, Mai M. Elhateir

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/28674

This study aims to synthesizing Fe (II) nanoparticles with green synthesis method. For this purpose fungal isolate was chosen from the most potent four isolates and its metallotolerance ability towards Fe (II) was studied. Extracellular and intracellular biosynthesis of the nanoparticles was achieved. The nanoparticles were characterized using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The shape of metal nanoparticles mostly was spherical. The size of the particles ranges from 80 nm to 370 nm & from 31.53 nm to 61.94 nm for extra- and intracellular particles respectively. The isolate was identified based on morphological and physiological and genetic characteristics and it was found to be closely related to Aspergillus foetidus strain ATCC 14916 with 99% similarity. The antimicrobial activity of the produced intracellular and extracellular nanoparticles was done. The samples have shown antimicrobial activity against some of the used test organisms with different results and different diameter of the inhibition zones among each other.  In addition, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the extracellular nanoparticles was studied. The inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor by polarization curves exhibited the maximum inhibition efficiency 93.877% at the highest concentration of 907.2 ppm.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potentials of L-Ascorbic Acid (L-AA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) in CCl4-Induced Oxidative Damage of Soft Tissues in Wistar Rats

O. M. Ighodaro, J. O. Omole, A. O. Aminu, A. M. Adeosun, A. I. Ogunlana

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ACSJ/2016/16762

The antioxidant potentials of Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and L-Ascorbic acid (L-AA) in CCl4-induced tissue damage were compared in adult female Wistar rats. Toxicity was induced in the animals via a single dose (i.p) of 20% 2 mL/Kg body weight (BW) of CCl4. BHT and L-ascorbic acid, each at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW were orally administered (twice daily for 7 days) to different groups of CCl4-treated animals. Biochemical analyses were carried out on the supernatant fractions of the liver and kidney homogenates to estimate the levels of tissue protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes: gluthatione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The data obtained showed that the evaluated antioxidants (BHT and L-ascorbic acid) elicited notable ameliorative effects against CCl4-induced tissue damage. Comparatively, BHT elicited relative higher catalase activity and decreased MDA concentration in CCl4-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. BHT also produced significantly higher protective effect in terms of SOD activity in the kidney of rats. Conversely, L-Ascorbic acid showed a relative higher GST and SOD activities in CCl4 induced liver damage alone. There was no significant difference in the effect of the two antioxidants on the activity of GST in the kidney. Overall, the data of this study appear to score BHT (a synthetic antioxidant) relatively higher than ascorbic acid (a natural antioxidant) in terms of in vivo antioxidant capacities within the limit of the parameters assessed. It also demonstrates that BHT elicits its antioxidant potential against CCl4 induced reactive species mainly through promotion of catalase activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation whereas ascorbic acid maximizes its antioxidant effects against the same toxicant by promoting GST and SOD activities particularly in the liver.