Open Access Original Research Article

Chromatographic Characterization of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production

Alexandre Ricardo Pereira Schuler, Francisco Sávio Gomes Pereira, Valmir Felix de Lima, Santulla Leide Bernardes Vasconcelos Carvalho, Antonio Demóstenes de Sobral

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29458

In this work it was carried out the chromatographic characterisation of vegetable oils (castor, soybean, cotton and jatropha) and animal fats (beef tallow and chicken fat), considered as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. The samples were transesterefied in microscale, followed by the characterisation by gas chromatographic with flame ionisation detector, regarding the proximate composition of present fatty acids. The results indicated some convergences in the composition of the fatty materials, regardless of origin, if animal or vegetable. The most relevant convergences were observed in the cotton and soybean oils in terms of linoleic acid (51.2% and 56.1%, respectively). The jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) and chicken fat exhibited convergence in terms of oleic acid (42.4% and 42.1%, respectively). On the other hand, the stearic acid prevailed in the beef tallow (38.9%), with the ricinoleic acid predominant in the castor oil (87.0%). Of all the feedstocks investigated, the residuals fats (beef tallow and chicken fat) are considered the most favourable for biodiesel production, due to their lower cost associated with their structural nature. The beef tallow consists mostly of stearic acid (38.9%) while the chicken fat of the oleic acid (42.0%) and both present good oxidative stability, partly transferring this feature to the biodiesel derived. Moreover, are not competitors as feed sources as the soybean and cotton oils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Solute-solute and Solute-solvent Interaction of Glycerin and Dextrose in Buffer Solutions at Different Temperature by Using Volumetric and Acoustic Methods

Yasmin Akhtar

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/28872

Densities and Ultrasonic velocities of glycerin and dextrose in Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 buffer solutions have been determined experimentally at 308 and 313K. From these experimental results the adiabatic compressibility Ks, acoustic impedance Z, intermolecular free length Lf, relative association RA, available volume Va and hydration number Hn have been calculated. The results are interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions in these ternary systems. It has been observed that there exist solute-solvent interaction and complex formation between in these ternary systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morpholinium Glycolate: A Reusable Ionic Liquid Catalyst for the Eco-friendly Synthesis of Dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-5-carbonitriles

Syed Abed, Shaikh Mohd Akmal, Nawaj Ali, Mazhar Farooqui

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29519

Morpholinium glycolate was found to be highly potent and reusable ionic liquid as a catalyst for the synthesis of dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazol-5-carbonitriles via a one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction of aryl aldehydes with ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, and malononitrile in an aqueous medium at room temperature. The key advantage of this present protocol is an economical, excellent yield, shorter reaction time, easy work-up, no chromatographic purification and the catalyst can be effortlessly recovered and reused in several runs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Substituted Pyrrolidines

Mohammed Salim Hussein

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29734

Series of substituted heterocyclic Chalcones 3-aryl-1-(thiophen-2-yl) prop-2-en-1-one 1-9 had been prepared by using Claisen-Schmidt condensation. In addition, series of substituted Schiff bases N-arylidene benzylamines 10-13 were prepared by the condensation of benzyl amine with various substituted aromatic aldehydes. The reaction of the above materials occurred through 1,3-anionic cycloaddition of azallyl anion of Schiff bases which acted as a nucleophile to the double bond of chalcones afforded the corresponding heterocycles (pyrrolidines 14-24). Spectral data and some physical properties were used to support the structures of the new products. The antibacterial activity of some prepared compounds were tested through its Inhibition effects on two kinds of bacteria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ion Exchange Kinetics of Mg(II) from Aqueous Solutions with 732 Cation-exchange Resin

Jia Qian, Yiwen Liu, Weilan Xue, Zuoxiang Zeng

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29509

The hydrogen type sulfonic resin 732 cation-exchange resin (732-CR) was applied to exchange Mg(II) from aqueous solution. The ion exchange kinetics were studied in batch experiments at temperature range of 298-328 K and Mg(II) concentration range of 5-40 mol·m-3. The kinetic data were first treated by Nernst-Planck equation for the exchange of univalent and bivalent ions, and also treated and compared by shrinking-core model that takes into account diffusion of metal ions within resin pores. The values and relationships of diffusion coefficients of counter ions (DM and DH) and effective diffusion coefficients of magnesium ions (De) were evaluated and discussed. Other useful ion exchange kinetic parameters such as self-diffusion coefficient (D0), energy of activation (ΔEa) and entropy of activation (ΔS*) were evaluated. The results show that the ion exchange process is favored under particle diffusion control mechanism and above two models can both describe kinetics of the removal of Mg(II) from aqueous solution by 732-CR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selenium Concentration of Iraq Patients Infected with Chronic Hepatitis B Using Different Analytical Techniques

Wahran M. Saod, Hapipah M. Ali, Suzy M. Salama, Tahseen A. Zaidan, Abdul Wahab A. Alfaluji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29186

Aims: The study aimed to use different analytical techniques for determination Selenium, related to patients with chronic hepatitis (B).

Study Design: Selenium was estimated by using AAS and ICP-MS and The analytical results undergoes comparison for priority of the methods. One hundred sixty patients samples and thirty healthy individuals were investigated in this study. The patients were divided into five groups.         

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Fallujah teaching hospital for the period from 1 May to 3 November at viral hepatitis consultation clinic in the hospital. 

Methodology: Selenium was estimated by using AAS and ICP-MS and The analytical results undergoes comparison for priority of the methods. One hundred sixty patients samples and thirty healthy individuals were investigated in this study. The patients were divided into five groups. Count/spleen diameter ratio was also calculated.

Results: In order to determine the appropriate method for measuring selenium, concentrations in the serum, scatter plotting method was employed. The measured readings of AAS and ICP-MS for Selenium, was compared. The results of the study suggest that hydride generation was the preferred method to estimate the concentration of selenium.

Conclusion: According to the results of application of scatter plotting statistical technique, it has been shown Selenium concentration can be determinate by AAS better than ICP-MS. The serum selenium concentrations were significantly lower in chronic hepatitis B patients than healthy individuals.