Open Access Original Research Article

Biodiesel from Residual Oils: Less Environmental Impact with Sustainability and Simplicity

Rafael do Nascimento Pereira, Francisco Sávio Gomes Pereira, Chesque Cavassano Galvão, Ana Maria Ribeiro Bastos da Silva, Valdinete Lins da Silva, Maria Aparecida Guilherme da Rocha, Nelson Medeiros de Lima Filho

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29455

This study shows viability energetic with residual frying oils. The oils collected and filtered were characterised in some analytical parameters and converted into biodiesel by homogeneous alkaline transesterification (molar ratio of 6:1, methanol: oil, 60 minutes, 60°C, and stirring of 300 rpm and 1% of NaOH). After reaction, decanted for 3 hours and purified with 0.5% phosphoric acid and distilled water. Heated at 110°C (water bath and vacuum distillation system) for the removal of residual methanol. The purified biodiesel was treated with anhydrous sodium sulphate, filtered and characterised in acid value, specific mass, kinematic viscosity, turbidity, water content and purity of ester. The results showed that the alkaline transesterification is a powerful tool for the conversion of saponifiable fatty acids into biodiesel, represented by the yield of 82% and 94.4% in purity of methyl esters, even with its demand for purification of the feedstock to reduce acidity and water content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Essential Oil from the Fruits of Fissistigma bracteolatum and Fissistigma maclurei

Nguyen V. Hung, Do N. Dai, Tran H. Thai, Tran D. Thang, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29572

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from the fruits of Fissistigma bracteolatum and Fissistigma maclurei (Annonaceae) and investigate the volatile constituents present they contained.

Study Design: The study involves the hydrodisitillation of essential oils from the air-dried fruit samples of F. bracteolatum and F. maclurei and analysis of their chemical compositions by GC and GC-MS.

Place and Duration of Study: Fruits of F. bracteolatum and F. maclurei were collected from Pù Mát National Park, Nghệ An Province, Vietnam, in May 2014. Analysis of the oil samples was performed between June and August, 2014.

Methodology: About 500 g of air-dried fruit samples was shredded and their oils were obtained by separate hydrodistillation for 4 h at normal pressure, according to the Vietnamese Pharmacopoeia specifications. The chemical constituents of the distilled oils were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The main constituents in the fruit of F. bracteolatum are α-pinene (15.5%) and δ-cadinene (11.0%), with significant amounts of β-caryophyllene (8.0%) and germacrene D (7.0%) while spathulenol (21.2%) and β-cubebene (10.6%) are the quantitatively significant compounds of F. maclurei fruit.

Conclusion: The present oil compositions of fruit of F. bracteolatum and F. maclurei were reported for the first for these species and the results were found to differ from previous studies on other parts of the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Status of Kafin-chiri Reservoir, Kano State, Nigeria for Drinking Water Supply

G. A. Adamu, M. S. Sallau, S. O. Idris, E. B. Agbaji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29863

The quality of drinking water depends largely on the treatment process and the distribution network. Water samples were collected from different locations in the reservoir, treatment plant and potable water from the tap and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters; pH, temperature, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, total hardness, suspended solids, total solids, color, DO, BOD, Cl- NO2-,  NO3-, COD and PO43- in three seasons of the year November - February (cold season); March - June (dry season) and July - September (rainy season). The results obtained showed no significant variations p<0.05 between the three sampling locations but with significant seasonal variations. The values obtained for most of the parameters were above the threshold limit set by WHO. There is no effectiveness in the treatment process in the removal of contaminants from the treated water. Water quality index (WQI) was calculated for the three sampling sites; reservoir, treated and potable water with a result of 147, 97 and 102 respectively which indicates very poor water quality. This gives serious concern over the possible adverse effect on human health. Excessive use of phosphate and nitrate based fertilizers and other anthropogenic activities around the reservoirs should be discouraged.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photolytic Degradation of Herbicide Atrazine by Radiation Ultraviolet (UVC): An Application of Green Chemistry

Valmir Felix de Lima, Francisco Sávio Gomes Pereira, Alexandre Ricardo Pereira Schuler, Maria de Los Angeles P. F. Palha, Antonio Demóstenes de Sobral, Iranildo José da Cruz Filho, Agrinaldo Jacinto do Nascimento Junior

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29619

Atrazine (ATZ) is an herbicide of the s-triazines classes used on crops as corn, cotton, soybean, and sugar cane. This work shows the ATZ degradation by ultraviolet radiation (UVC, 254 nm) in a bench-scale annular photoreactor. The initial concentration of the irradiated samples ranged from 2.0x10-5 to 1.2x10-4 mol∙L-1. Actinometry was used to determine the radiant energy incident on the photoreactor (1.36x10-9 einstein∙cm-2∙s-1) and the radiation source was a low-pressure mercury vapor discharge lamp with tubular glass (Phillips TUV 36 W). The conversion in 240s (27.5% - 48.7%) is related inversely with the concentration of the samples. Some results found: photochemistry reaction rate (0.9x10-9 to 2.2x10-9 mol∙cm-3∙s-1), volumetric rate of photon absorption (VRPA) (2.0x10-8 to 8.0x10-8 einstein∙cm-3∙s-1), and global initial quantum yield (0.03 to 0.05 mol∙einstein-1). For the reaction rate was proposed a phenomenological model and the process was modeled of form deterministically. The estimated values for the kinetic parameters , m, and n were, respectively: 0.03 mol∙einstein-1, 0.02 and 0.5. The kinetic model fitted the data with accuracy of 91.8%. As conclusion of the work, the photolytic degradation with UVC is an efficient process, low cost and can be used to set up pilot plants, in various scales, to reduce or eliminate compounds of the atrazine class or similar emerging contaminants, in effluents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Catalytic Conversion of Chloromethane to Methane and Propane on SiO2/Al2O3: Kinetics of Deactivation Caused by Coking

Leopoldo O. A. Rojas, João F. Sousa, Juan A. C. Ruiz, Márcio B. D. Bezerra

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29616

Chloromethane was catalytically converted into methane and propane in a fixed-bed reactor with control of pressure and flow rates. The deactivation by coking was studied in a microadsorber equipped with gravimetric monitoring. In this study, two models are proposed: the first one proposes that product production competes with coke formation; and the other one proposes that coke formation competes with product desorption. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were estimated. Results showed that chloromethane is activated by silica-alumina but the products are usually high molecular weight hydrocarbons, which are broken down by acid sites to produce compounds like methane and propane.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Soils of Akure, Nigeria

V. O. E. Akpambang, A. S. Izomoh

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/30108

Top soils (0-15 cm) of Shasha market, North Gate motor park, Benin motor park and Ilesha motor park in Akure metropolis, Nigeria was sampled. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in frequently visited urban areas. PAHs were determined by extraction using hexane and dichloromethane in an ultra sonicator with a microprocessor for control of time and temperature. The extract was concentrated and cleaned up using Nitrogen gas. Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) was used to analyze for PAHs. The ∑PAHs (summation of PAHs) ranged from 6.184-27.046 µg/kg and 1.511-13.766 µg/kg, ∑Low molecular weight PAHs ranged from 3.237-14.672 µg/kg and 0.279-8.338 µg/kg, ∑High molecular weight PAHs ranged from 2.947-12.374 µg/kg and 0.627-5.428 µg/kg in the samples and controls respectively. Shasha market sample and control has the highest ∑PAHs. Source diagnostic ratio inferred that the PAHs originated mainly from combustion sources and vehicular exhaust. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the site samples were all higher than the control samples. Areas with very high activities had higher concentrations.