Open Access Short Research Article

Investigation of the Occurrence and Levels of Some Heavy Metals in Spring Water from Bazza, Pella and Yadim Areas of Adamawa State

Pigweh Isa Amos, Innocent Amada Joseph

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/30118

Analytical studies was carried out on springs water samples collected from Bazza (Michika L.G.A), Pella (Hong L.G.A) and Yadim (Fufore L.G.A) in Adamawa state of Nigeria in order to investigate the occurrence and concentration levels of some heavy metals using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).The results obtained revealed that cadmium, chromium and lead were absent in the water samples while Iron, Manganese, Zinc and Copper were found to be present in the water samples with their mean concentration in the following ranges Iron (0.39 – 0.82 mgL־1), Copper (0.05 – 0.20 mgL־1), Manganese (0.01-0.04 mgL־1), and Zinc (0.87-0.94 mgL־1). From the results, Zinc has the highest concentration while Manganese has the least. The values of Cu, Mn, and Zn were found to be within the acceptable range of standard values for heavy metals in water set by NAFDAC [5], SON [6] and WHO [8], While the studied samples contain higher concentration of Fe than the acceptable range of NAFDAC [5] and SON [6].

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Aspartoyl Derivatives

Kodi Philip, Kwetegyeka Justus, Wanjiru Kinuthia Esther

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/22401

Aims: This research focused on synthesizing antifungal N-tosyl-L-aspartoyl derivatives with the aim of relating the structure with the expected biological activities. Elucidation of compounds that had good yiel and were active was done.

Study Design: The antimicrobial activities of aspartic acid derivatives was determined against five fungal isolates using the in vitro model.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were carried out in Makerere University, Department of Chemistry and Department of Botany, between 2012 and 2014.

Methodology: Synthesis N-tosyl-L-aspartic acid was prepared by reacting p-tosyl chloride with L-aspartic acid in sodium hydroxide-ether mixture. The anhydride was prepared by refluxing N-Tosyl-L-aspartic acid with acetic anhydride. N-tosyl-L-aspartoylamino acids were obtained using 1:1 mole of the tosyl derivatives with amino acids: glycine, L- alanine, L-Leucine, L-valine and L-tyrosine.         N-tosyl-L-aspartoylamino acid methyl esters were prepared by the action of thionyl chloride in methanol on N-tosyl-L-aspartoylamino acid derivatives. N-tosyl-L-aspartoylaniline derivatives and N-tosyl-L-aspartoyl-p-amino benzoic acid were achieved by refluxing the amines and p-amino benzoic acid in glacial acetic acid with the anhydride. The acid chloride was synthesized by refluxing N-tosyl-L-aspartoyl-p-amino benzoic acid in thionyl chloride. Stirring the acid chloride with appropriate amino acid in triethylamine-benzene mixture yielded the N-tosyl-L-aspartoyl-p-aminobenzoylamino acids. Esterifying these derivatives with Methanol in thionyl chloride afforded the methyl esters. The acid azide was prepared by stirring sodium azide in dry benzene with N-tosyl-L-aspartoyl-p-aminobenzoyl chloride. N-tosyl-L-aspartoylamino phenyl ureas were obtained by Curtius rearrangement by coupling of acid azides with appropriate amino acids in dry benzene. The structures of the products were elucidated using micro- and IR-spectral analyses. Confirmation of the structures was done by 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnet Resonance) spectroscopy at 60 MHz with TMS (Tetramethylsaline) as internal standard and elemental analysis.

Results: Thirty three compounds were tested for their biological activity against five fungal isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium expansum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Eighteen compounds showed activity on either Candida albicans or Fusarium, while all the derivatives showed no antimicrobial activity on the three fungal isolates Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillium expansum and Cladosporium cladoporioides. All the synthesised compounds were tested against selected micro-organisms. These included: Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Fusarium moniliforme, Penicillin expansum, Cladosporium cladosporioides. The antimicrobial properties of derivatives were assayed in vitro by agar disc diffusion method. The fungal isolates were locally isolated from rice porridge, milled Pakistan rice and from millet powder while the culture media was prepared using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA).

Conclusion: The study showed that changing the chemical structures of the synthesized compounds (1-33) resulted in change of biological activity, when the structure of the compound was altered. This proves that they could be of practical pharmaceutical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Groundwater Quality from Aquifers in Garissa County

P. K. Kairigo, E. S. Madivoli, E. G. Maina, P. K. Kimani, J. C. Ogilo, D. Bisera, J. G. Kinaichu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/30176

Water currently consumed by rural residents in Kenya far exceeds drinking water guideline values proposed by the World Health Organization. The basement and alluvial formations are known to exhibit poor water quality, with predominantly slightly saline water at greater depths especially in areas where there is no groundwater movement. Wells are prone to pollution due to lack of well protection and that in effect compromises water quality. The main objective of this study was to assess the quality of water sampled from pans and wells in Garissa County. Representative samples were collected according to internationally approved methods of sample collection, transportation, and testing and data analysis. 40 boreholes, 45 water pans, various points of the river Tana, shallow wells and springs were sampled across the County and physicochemical and biological parameters ascertained. Results obtained identified high total water hardness, total alkalinity, fluoride, chloride and turbidity. Some water sources in sampled area had high fluoride, high arsenic levels (16 μg/l), pH (8.78) and conductivity (22000 μs/cm), exceeding WHO limits of 1.5 mg/l fluoride, 10 μg/l for arsenic, 6.0 - 8.0 for pH and 2,500 μs/cm for conductivity by WHO (2013). The study concluded that accessibility to good quality drinking water is hampered by the presence of pollutants in some areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Contamination Status of Bomu and Oginigba Rivers, Rivers State, Nigeria, Using Some Trace Metals and Callinectes gladiator as Indices

A. C. Marcus, O. S. Edori

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/28499

Two Rivers: Bomu in Ogoniland and Oginigba in Port Harcourt all in Rivers State, Nigeria were strategically chosen to represent rivers in Rivers State that are prone to ecological degradation due to industrial activities. Their contamination status was assessed using trace metals in water, sediment and Callinectes gladiator (swimming crab). Water, sediment and crab samples were collected following standard procedures (APHA, 1975). They were prepared by acid digestion using 1:3:1 mixture of HCIO4, HNO3 and H2SO4 acids and Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and air-acetylene flames were used for the trace metals analysis. The results of water analysis showed ranges of concentration (mgL-1) of trace metals as follows: Cu (1.089-3.327), Ni (2.997-3.897), Cd (<0.001), Cr (2.728-0.291), Zn (0.853-3.123) and Pb (0.369-1.198) in Bomu; Cu (0.692-2.019), Ni (3.389-4.693), Cd (<0.001), Cr (0.872-5.771), Zn (1.748-2.621) and Pb (0.642-0.999) in Oginigba. In the sediment, concentrations (ppm, dry weight) were: Cu (91.028-119.275), Ni (145.175-161.025), Cd (ND), Cr (119.725-144.275), Zn (143.200-243.350) and Pb (52.353-117.350) in Bomu; Cu (62.350-146.050), Ni (108.775-193.700), Cd (ND) Cr (92.350-162.575), Zn (182.725-285.775) and Pb (30.900-117.158) in Oginigba. Tissue analysis of             C. gladiator gave concentrations (ppm, dry weight) for egg, exoskeleton and flesh as follows: Cu (45.215, 37.217 and 64.372), Ni (47.301,16.824 and 51.973), Cd (ND) Cr (64.222, 13.874 and 54.354), Zn (19.823, 13.801 and 56.421) and Pb (ND, 44.036, and 31.120) in Bomu; Cu (40.411, 15.203 and 66.580), Ni (33.402, 41.053 and 101.620), Cd (ND) Cr (28.131, 21.333 and 78.442), Zn (197.783, 17.680 and 87.510) and Pb (5.555, 3.055 and 7.658) in Oginigba. There were no significant (p>0.05) variations in the heavy metal concentrations between the two rivers with regard to water and sediment. However, concentrations of heavy metals in the two rivers columns seemed to have been much depleted by rapid sedimentation in the bottom sediment. The water and sediment analyses revealed largely anthropogenic trace metal enrichment that exceeded both national and international limits in most of the cases with exception of Pb in Oginigba River, and Cu and Pb in the sediment. The observed heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn in the tissues of C. gladiator also classified the organism as a good bio-indicator for monitoring trace metals pollution of these waterbodies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Synthesis from Selected Kenyan Biomass

P. K. Kimani, P. G. Kareru, S. E. Madivoli, P. K. Kairigo, E. G. Maina, O. S. Rechab

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29390

Materials that are of low cost, bio-based and biodegradable are the basis within which today’s industrial technology is trying to accommodate. Cellulose being a low cost polymer is naturally occurring, bio-based, renewable and biodegradable thus its derivatives are incorporated in today’s industrial technology either as transient intermediates or as permanent products. The Isolation of cellulose from Miscanthus sinensis, Eichhornia crassipes and Cyperus papyrus biomasses was done by soda process followed by treatment with acetic acid: hydrogen peroxide mixture. The percentage yield of isolated cellulose from M. sinensis, E. crassipes and C. papyrus was found to be 30.25± 0.25%, 31.64 ± 1.46% and 29.55 ± 0.64% respectively. Characterization of the obtained microcrystalline cellulose revealed presence of functional groups typical of cellulose whereby a peak at 3359.8 cm-1 represented –OH stretching vibration. The peak at wave number 1051.1 cm-1 characteristic of C-O-C group was also observed. Functionalization of Isolated cellulose to obtain carboxymethyl cellulose was done by alkalization followed by Esterification with sodium monochloroacetic acid (SMCA). This was confirmed by presence of CH2COO stretching vibration peak between 1598 – 1605 cm-1. The degree of crystallinity for Miscanthus sinensis was calculated to be 73.93% while the crystal size was calculated to be 1.31 nM. The degree of crystallinity and crystal sizes were calculated to be 71.42% and 0.059 nm for E. crassipes and 46.15% and 0.068 nm for C. papyrus respectively. The yield, degree of substitution and swelling capacity of CMC from M. sinensis, E. crassipes and C. papyrus were found to be dependent on the source of cellulose. This demonstrated that M. sinensis, E. crassipes and C. papyrus are reliable non-conventional sources of cellulose which can be used to synthesize commercial grade CMC products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Dry Washing Process on Denim Garment

Shikha Sarker, Md. Sharifur Rahman Rakesh, Md. Mohsin Alam, Abhijit Roy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2016/29399

Denim garment is most widely used due to its appearance, comfort, strength, durability and low cost, which gives the customers utmost satisfaction. Denim garment does not inherit customer’s desired properties in the primary stage of manufacturing, but can be incorporated desirably by applying some finishing treatment, most widely known as dry washing process, in the denim garment. The most widely used dry washing processes for denim garment to develop new a look and effect are hand brush, destroy, tagging, pressing crinkle, whiskering and PP spray. We applied a combination of dry washing process on raw sample to develop certain effect in the denim and measured the change of physical properties due to application of different dry washing process. First, a combination of dry washing process (certain number) is applied on raw sample and repeated on other four similar raw samples. Similarly other five combination of dry washing process, are applied on raw samples. Due to the application of these combinations of dry washing process on raw samples, they undergo changes of some physical properties like GSM, tear strength and EPI & PPI. Then the average values of these properties (GSM, tear strength and EPI & PPI) for repeated application of combination of dry washing process on similar raw samples are calculated. Then the difference between the average value and the raw value of specific properties is calculated to show the deviation due to the application of combination of dry washing process. This gives an indication of change of physical properties due to application of different dry washing processes for imparting desired effect on denim garments.