Open Access Original Research Article

Metabolites Detected in the Crude N-Hexane Extract of Artemisia annua Linn (Asteraceae) Cultivated in Langtang, Plateau State, Nigeria

Cyril E. Manulu, Esther A. Adelakun, Jeremiah I. Abok

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/28602

Artemisia annua was grown in and harvested from Langtang, Plateau State in Nigeria. The dried pulverized aerial part of Artemisia annua was extracted with n-hexane by percolation and concentrated in vaccum at 40°C. Analysis of crude n-hexane extract by GC-MS revealed twelve major compounds, which were mostly terpenoids. These are Deoxyqinghaosu (6.85%), Arteannuic acid (3.99%), Caryophyllene oxide (4.49%), 9-Octadecenoic acid (25.54%), Camphor (2.93%), Borneol (1.48%), 5,5Dimethyl-6-methylenebicyclo[2,2,1]hept-2-yl acetate (1.18%), 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, E,E (1.48%), Carveyl acetate (0.52%), Spathulenol (1.57%), α-Cubebene (0.66%), β-Farnesene (0.57%). The result suggests that the Artemisia annua chemotypes cultivated in Langtang area of Plateau State, Nigeria, may be related to those grown in Ethiopia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring Gmelina arborea Leaves for Biofuels and Petrochemical and Pharmaceutical Feedstocks

H. Ibrahim, S. Ayilara, K. O. Nwanya, A. S. Zanna, O. B. Adegbola, D. C. Nwakuba

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/31407

An investigation was carried on the chemical constituents of Gmelina arborea leaves by hydrolyzing the pulverized dry leaves with 3% sulphuric acid solution at 100°C for 30 minutes. The extract on analysis with GCMS yielded 31 compounds. The major components of the extract include; 5-methul furfural 13.024%, 5-hydroxyl methyl furfural 7.548%, 2-furan methanol 22.728%, 6-methyl-3-pyridazinone 3.256%, o-hydroxyphenol 2.704%, p-hydoxyphenol 4.4%, m-hydroxyphenol 3.048%, levoglucosenone 7.576%, levoglucosan 3.26%, 4-Altrosan 1.63%, 1,6-Anhydro-.beta.-d-talopyranose 1.63% and D-Allose 1.63%. Biorefinary processes of                    Gmelina arborea will be capable of replacing petroleum products in future. The plant leaves have feedstocks for pharmaceutical, agro-industries and others.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Physico-chemical Suitability of Groundwater for Drinking and Agriculture Purposes in Bonoua and Samo (South-East Côte d’Ivoire)

Ahoussi Kouassi Ernest, Koffi Yao Blaise, Kouassi Amani Michel, Aké Gabriel Étienne, Biémi Jean

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/30787

Aims: The goal of this study is to know the quality of groundwater from Bonoua and Samo, for drinking and irrigation purposes.

Methodology: Three (3) samples from boreholes and hand dug wells were taking for this study. Then groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation and domestic purposes in Bonoua and Samo, South-East Côte d’Ivoire was examined using various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, sulfate, chloride and heavy metals.

These parameters were used to assess the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes by comparing with the WHO standards. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and percentage of sodium (%Na) were used for irrigation suitability assessment.

Results: The groundwater is acidic with a pH that varies from 4.8 to 5.4. The electrical conductivity values is low with an average of 66.54±29.07 μS/cm. The sample analysis reveals that except to the pH, the groundwater is entirely fit for drinking with respect to WHO guidelines. The groundwater from Bonoua and Samo is a fresh water and classified into three principal hydrochemical facies depending on the dominant ions present: HCO3-Ca-Mg; Cl-SO4-Ca-Mg and Cl-HCO3-Mg-Ca. The PCA results showed that two phenomenon controlled the process of groundwater mineralization in the area. In fact weathering and dissolution of minerals were found to be the major geochemical processes governing the groundwater evolution. Groundwater is also influenced by anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices (Fertilizers spreader).

Conclusion: Groundwater from the study area is influenced by anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices. Based on SAR and %Na almost samples are suitable for irrigation purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrophotometric Determination of Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of Aerial Parts of Blepharis edulis (Pers.)

Alsiddig Osama, Sufyan Awdelkarim, Mohamed Ezeldin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/25916

Quantitative determination of phenols and flavonoids of Blepharis edulis aerial parts was carried out using spectrophotometery techniques. Gallic acid and quercetin were used as the standards for calibration for the phenols and flavonoids respectively. B. edulis commonly known as Elsihaa, it has wide range of folkloric medicinal uses. In the current study the presences of useful secondary metabolites were observed, also high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents with 34.85±2.1 mg/g and 59.56±0.29 mg/g respectively. These findings support its medicinal uses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photochemical Study for Solar Energy Conversion & Storage in Solar Cell: Yellow 5GN-EDTA System

Kanta Meena, Shiv Ram Saini, R. C. Meena

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/29925

The photovoltages and photocurrent in photogalvanic cell were studied for conversion and storage of solar energy by using yellow 5GN as a photo sensitizer and EDTA as a reductant. The observed cell performance in terms of photopotential, photocurrent, conversion efficiency, fill factor and storage capacity in terms of half change time are 905.0 mV, 450.0 μA, 1.45%, 0.5 and 170.0 minutes on irradiation for 140 minutes, respectively. The effects of different parameters on electrical output of the cell were observed and a mechanism has been proposed for generation of the photopotential and photocurrent in photo galvanic cell.