Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Aniline and from Aqueous Solutions by Coagulation/Flocculation–Flotation

Shahin Ahmadi, Ferdos Kord Mostafapour, Edris Bazrafshan

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/ flocculation and flotation process for aniline removal from aqueous solutions, which the dissolved air flotation (DAF) was applied in laboratory scale. After determination of the optimal condition of pH and the dosage of Polyaluminum chloride by coagulation/ flocculation process, the effect of the effective parameters including the concentration of the coagulant, coagulation time, flotation time and saturation pressure on the removal efficiency of the aniline and COD By dissolved air flotation was studied. The DAF process can reduce COD and aniline up to 89.6% and 95%, respectively. The optimum condition was as follows: pH=6, initial concentration of aniline= 200 mg/L, flocculation time = 10 min, flotation time= 20 sec, the pressure= 4 atm and PAC concentration of 20 mg/L. The coagulation/ flocculation -flotation (DAF) processes can an effective method to remove the aniline from aqueous solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Remediation of Carbamazepine from Water Using Novel Magnetic Iron Modified Carbonized Baggasse: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Mechanistic Studies

Selly Jemutai-Kimosop, Veronica A. Okello, Francis Orata, Zachary M. Getenga, Victor O. Shikuku

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32444

Baggasse derived biochar magnetically modified with iron (α-Fe2O3-CBG) was fabricated, characterized and applied as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of carbamazepine (CBZ), a pharmaceutically active compound which has been reported as an emergent water contaminant. Characterization of the synthesized (α-Fe2O3-CBG) composite showed that iron was effectively impregnated onto the carbonized bagasse network. The composite was able to achieve 60.9 % CBZ removal within a period of 4 hours. The time-dependency adsorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetic law while the intraparticle diffusion model indicated that pore diffusion is not the sole operative rate-determining mechanism with significant boundary layer effects. Freundlich model best explained the equilibrium sorption data. The adsorption extent was also strongly pH-dependent though adsorption mechanism is significantly driven by electrostatic interactions at lower pH. Furthermore, magnetic separation of the contaminant-laden adsorbent was successfully accomplished.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Physicochemical, Bacteriological and Heavy Metals Properties of Effluent from a Chemical Industry in Niger Delta, Nigeria

D. C. Belonwu, N. N. Igwele, F. C. Anacletus

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32100

Some physicochemical, heavy metals and bacteriological parameters of effluent samples from a chemical industry in Niger Delta, Nigeria, in two sampling seasons (Wet and Dry seasons) were assessed in this work using standard methods of analysis. Results of the physico-chemical parameters obtained from the effluent samples of both seasons revealed that most of the dry season’s values were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the wet season values. Physico-chemical values obtained for pH, conductivity, TSS, turbidity and Sulphate in both the wet and dry seasons’ effluent water samples were higher than their respective Nigeria Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and/or World Health Organisation (WHO) standard values. Dry season’s TDS (4378.00 ± 0.00 mg/l) and phosphate (3.88 ± 0.65 mg/l) values obtained were higher than their respective DPR and WHO limit values. Bacteriological result revealed high T. coliform count of 16.67 ± 2.08 (MPN/100ml) for the wet season’s effluent water which was higher than the DPR and/or WHO standard values. Heavy metals results of the effluent water samples in both seasons were all at a ‘not detectable’ levels except for Zn (wet and dry season). Results of the average values of the seasonal physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of the effluent water samples showed that the average values of pH (10.25 ± 0.40), conductivity (4520.09 ± 41.06 µS/cm), TDS (2459.00 ± 12.13 mg/l), TSS (124.00 ± 32.69 mg/l), turbidity (110.85 ± 37.47 NTU), sulphate (434.50 ± 77.51 mg/l) and T. coliform (8.34 ± 1.04 MPN/100ml) obtained were significantly higher (p<0.05) than their corresponding DPR and/or WHO limit values. This study concludes that there were some deviations of the findings from the stipulated regulatory standard limits and therefore suggests proper assessment and treatment of industrial effluent water before discharging into the environment. The differences observed between the two seasons could be either as a result of higher industrial activities during the dry season and/or due to the much flow of storm/flood water which constantly washes away the substances from the sampling points.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Modified Poly (Trimethylene Terephthalate) Used for Fused Deposition Modeling: Synthesis and Application

Dandan Yu, Li Sun, Weilan Xue, Zuoxiang Zeng

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32333

This paper presents the synthesis and application of a modified poly (trimethylene terephthalate) for Fused deposition modeling process. Five samples(S1-S5) of poly(trimethylene terephthalate-co-isophthalate-co-seacate) (PTTIS) were prepared by direct esterification and subsequent polycondensation of terephthalic acid (PTA), isophthalic acid(PIA) (nPTA/nPIA =7/3), sebacic acid (SA) and 1,3-propanediol (PDO) with different mole percent(αSA) of SA(αSA=0–4.8 mol%). The samples were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 1H-NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The mechanical properties tests showed  that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, and flexural strength values of the samples increase with increasing in αSA up to 1 mol%, and then decreases, while  the elongation at break value the opposite, and the izod impact strength value increases with increasing in αSA. The 3D printing materials which were prepared from S1-S5 were tested by a 3D printer to assess their suitability for Fused deposition modeling (FDM). The results showed that the PTTIS (nPTA/nPIA =7/3) containing 1.0–3.8 mol% SA are suitable for FDM, and their anisotropy are better than that of ABS.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Effect of Solvents on Fluorescent Spectra

Firew Tarekegn Gemeda

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32006

When absorption spectra are measured in solvents of different polarity, it is found that the positions, intensities, and shapes of the absorption bands are usually modified by these solvents. These changes are a result of physical intermolecular solute–solvent interaction forces (such as ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, hydrogen bonding, etc.), which above all tend to alter the energy difference between ground and excited state of the absorbing species containing the chromophore. When excited states of a molecule are created in solution by continuous or flash excitation, the excited-state molecule interacts to a varying degree with the surrounding solvent molecules, depending on their polarity, before returning to the ground state. These excited-state solute/solvent interactions found in fluorescent molecules are often reflected in the spectral position and shape of the emission bands as well as in the lifetimes of the excited-state molecules. The solvent-dependence of the position of emission bands in fluorescence spectra is termed as solvatochromism. These review paper presents detail discussion on solvatochromism, Electrochromism, and reaction field theory.