Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Microbiological and Physico-chemical Composition of Domestic Wastewater in Rivers and Bayelsa States

Mayowa A. Azeez, Ademola S. Olufemi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/33507

Aims: This research study aims at ascertaining the inhibitive contributions of these domestic effluents even as they flow from drains into the rivers.

Study Design: The microbiological and physico-chemical composition of domestic wastewater in Rivers and Bayelsa States was achieved experimentally.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Rivers and Bayelsa states, Nigeria, between August 20016 and January 2017.

Methodology: The waste water samples were aseptically collected from domestic points using 1 litre sterile polyethylene bottles filled with ice and was immediately taken to the laboratory for analysis to improve reliability of data and they were stored at 4°C for further analysis.

Results: The physicochemical analysis of wastewater collected from 20 stations were investigated. These parameters were analyzed by standard methods. The color of the collected sewage water was pale yellow to black and was turbid in some selected stations. Unpleasant odor was observed in all selected stations. The pH of the wastewater varied from 6.0 to 7.3, while the water conductivity ranges from 650 to 2390 μScm-1. The maximum total suspended solid was 182 mg/l, and the maximum biological oxygen demand was 569.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand of the selected stations varied widely (507.1 – 602.9 mg/l), and the dissolved oxygen content varied from 0.01 to 0.242 mg/l. The nitrate content was found to be maximum in station G (18.5 ppm), and the samples show high content of bacteria in all the stations.

Conclusion: This study anchors on the need for effective sewage treatment of domestic, industrial and municipal effluent before they are discharged into the environment. This will help to meet up with the long-term challenges of environmental pollution, improve standard of living and health, and also enhance economic opportunities and good sustainable development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Modification of Cellulosic Fabric via Esterification Using Balanites aegyptiaca Seed Oil

F. I. Omizegba, K. A. Bello, J. O. Abayeh, H. M. Adamu, D. E. A. Boryo, I. Y. Chindo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32686

Cellulose fabrics were esterified by using varying volume of Balanites aegyptiaca seed oil. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried on the esterified fabrics and unesterified fabric. The crystallographs of all esterified fabrics gave almost the same profile different from that of control fabric. The control fabric gave a sharp single peak at 24.033º diffractometer angle. Esterified fabrics gave a slightly broad split peaks at lower diffractometer angles which ranged from 20.080 – 22.690º, suggesting that there was structural modification of cellulose. The inter-atomic distance (d-spacing) for control fabric was 3.7027 Å. There was increase in d-spacing which ranged from 3.9192 – 4.4216 Å for esterified fabric. The peak width increased from 1.5º (control) to range of 1.6 – 2.8º (esterified) fabrics. The peaks intensity increased from 5489 (control) to highest value (7798) for 30 cm3 of oil esterified fabric. The crystallite size reduced from 9.9 nm (control) to a maximum value (9.2 nm) for 40 cm3 and to minimum value (5.3 nm) for 10 cm3 oil esterified fabrics. The percentage crystallinity reduced from 65% (control) to a range of 62–63% for esterified fabrics. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that reduction in crystallite size, increase in d-spacing, intensity and peak width were due to the presence of a bulky ester group in the cellulose chain; this may also have led to the observed decrease in percentage crystallinity of the esterified fabrics. This structural modification is expected to have direct consequences on the physical and mechanical properties as well as the dyeing properties of the esterified fabrics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals and Essential Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Commonly Used for Medicine in Tanzania

Leonid L. Nkuba, Najat K. Mohammed

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/31963

Several plants in Tanzania are known to be of potential therapeutic value and are used in traditional medicine system of the country. In this paper, two medicinal plants Moringa oleifera (leaves and roots), and Hibiscus sabsdariffa (rosella calyces) were analysed for elemental concentration. Essential and non-essential heavy metals like Mg, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were quantified in selected medicinal plants by EDXRF technique. The main purpose of this study is to document the presence and the levels of heavy metals in these herbs. High Potassium contents were observed to be 20882.20 ± 253.65 mg/kg in Moringa oleifera roots, in Hibiscus sabsdariffa (rosella calyces) 15732.03 ± 191.27 mg/kg, and 14541.08 ± 206.83 mg/kg in Moringa oleifera leaves. Magnesium was the second abundant element with concentration (5058.13 ± 115.80 mg/kg in Moringa oleifera leaves, 4328.86 ± 132.85 mg/kg Hibiscus sabsdariffa and 1400.59.59 ± 72.09 mg/kg in Moringa oleifera roots), followed by Iron (716.57 ± 48.05 mg/kg in Hibiscus sabsdariffa, 556.44 ± 11.77 mg/kg and 309.57 ± 8.96 mg/kg in Moringa oleifera roots and leaves respectively. Except Fe and Ni in all plant samples and Mg in leaves of Moringa oleifera and calyces of Hibiscus sabsdariffa as well as Mn in roots of Moring oleifera, the concentrations of other metals were below the permissible limits in plants set by FAO/WHO. The results presented that there is no risk associated with consumption of analysed medicinal plants. However, since Cd was not detected and it is highly toxic even at very low concentrations. Therefore, further analysis which will employ other analytical techniques and includes more samples is needed to have a definite statistical conclusion on the safety consumption of the analysed medicinal plants. The results also show that the analysed plant species are beneficial sources of appropriate and essential trace elements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Metal Concentrations in Galena Ore and Soil Samples from Galena-rich Farmlands

A. U. Itodo, I. S. Enejiv, L. A. Egbegbedia

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32740

One of the Nigerian minerals (galena ore) within galena deposit region in Torkula, Benue state, was characterized along with its vicinity farmland soils for possible relationships in their geo-physico-chemical compositions. Both classical (titrimetric & gravimetric) and instrumental analytical techniques were adopted. Contamination factors revealed different categories of pollution by heavy metals while the metal loading in the ore and ore-rich soils shows no statistical difference for Pb and other key metals at p < 0.05. Hence, the possibility of leaching of toxic metals from mineral ores, their transport and distribution to surrounding environment cannot be over emphasized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Activation of Khojakul Phosphorites by Ammonium Salts

Tashkenbay Bautdinov, Akhmed Reymov, Sayfuddin Tadjiev

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/30755

Aims: To investigate chemical activation of low-grade phosphorite from Karakalpakstan, Khojakul by ammonium salts in order to obtain slow-acting phosphate fertilizers.

Study Design: The content of the total form N (Nt.) was determined by method Kjeldahl method. Determination of total and acceptable forms (on 0.2 M solution of Trilon B) of phosphorus (P2O5tot., P2O5wat.) was performed widely in the analysis of phosphate ores by differential method on photo colour meter PCM-3 (made in Russia, l = 440 nm) as phosphorus-vanadium-molybdenum complex. This method is based on measuring the light transmission of yellow phosphorus-vanadium-molybdenum complex relative to the reference solution containing a certain amount of phosphates. The method allows analyzing the products with a relative error of determining ±1%. The activation rate (Ka) was defined by relation acceptable P2O5 form to total P2O5 form. Decarbonization degree (Kd) was determined by changing C02 in the phosphate rock and final product. pH of ammonium salts solution and final products were defined after their agitation in 10% distiller water suspension. Further suspension obtained was measured by potentiometric method on ionomer I-130M (made in Russia) with electrode system of electrodes ESL 63-07, EVL-1M3.1.

Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory of phosphate fertilizers of the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry under Academy Science of the Republic of Uzbekistan, from July to August in  2016.

Methodology: Model laboratory device that obtains fertilizers consists of five-liter screw mixer made from stainless steel 12X18H10T equipped with stirrer, moved by electric motor. The laboratorial experiment is done in the following way: in the beginning measured sample of phosphorite was charged in screw mixer and then it was fed to 2, 5, 10 and 20% of ammonia solutions at different ratios proportions of mineral fertilizers (MF) and phosphorite powder (PHP), for 30 min with vigorous stirring components. Products obtained from interaction of components were analyzed for nitrogen content and different forms of phosphorus. The weight ratio of MF:PHP was in the range from 1: 1 to 1: 10. After completing activation process for 30 minute, wet products were dried in muffle oven at 90°C until dry condition.

Results: The chemical compositions of final products were determined during the experiment. Based on chemical activation of low-grade phosphorite fertilizers containing high acceptable form of phosphorus (v) oxide (P2O5) can be obtained. It had been found that degree of activation (Ka) of phosphorite powder depends on the nature of the ammonium solution and the pH of the medium. Ammonium sulphate is more acidic than ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate, and ammonium chloride. The pH of ammonium sulphate (10% of its solution) is 3.80. The decarbonization degree (Kd) of the fertilizers obtained from ammonium sulphate is in a range from 6.33 to 35.39%, which is higher than for other types. Therefore, there had been obtained the fertilizers containing high acceptable form of phosphorus (v) oxide in a range 35.30 – 59.07%. It was revealed that the more phosphate raw is used for activation process, the less is acceptable P2O5 in fertilizers obtained. Moreover, the fertilizers have high content of nitrogen, depending on the type of ammonium salts used, in a range 1.06 – 17.33% in the composition.

Conclusion: Based on the results it is possible to obtain effective slow-acting complex phosphate fertilizers with different ratios of nutrients by the activation of low-grade phosphate rock from Karakalpakstan, which do not have an industrial value, mineral salts, used in agriculture as a standard mineral fertilizer.