Open Access Original Research Article

Novel Linearized Kinetic Modeling of Starch Hydrolysis

Nwoko Christopher Ikpe Amadi, Nkwoada Amarachi Udoka, Ihuoma Peterclever Chidi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/34116

The hydrolysis of starch into glucose by acid and enzyme techniques has recorded higher glucose recovery and optimization of processes, but lacks the fitting of the results into a kinetic linear model. The application of kinetic linearized model effect of temperature on pH and acid concentration during hydrolysis of starch into glucose was studied. The experiment was conducted at different durations using reported preparatory techniques and average values of triplicates were reported. The maximum glucose yield of 18.20 mg/ml was observed on 4 hours at 60°C from acid hydrolysis and similarly observed at 4 hours at 100°C for enzyme hydrolysis. The lowest glucose yield of 10.0 mg/ml and 11.1 mg/ml were both recorded at 30 minutes duration for acid and enzyme hydrolysis respectively. The correlation coefficient of acid hydrolysis when starch was hydrolyzed for 2 hours at 80°C had a value of 1 (line of best fit) while the weakest linear relationship (0.715) was obtained was in enzymatic hydrolysis when starch was hydrolyzed at 4 hours for 80°C Hence, the highest glucose yield was not automatically the most efficient process. The linear model equations showed that acid hydrolysis of starch had a positive energetic interaction while enzymatic hydrolysis had a negative energetic interaction. The slope and intercept of acid hydrolysis were all positive and indicated a positive relationship with parameters. All enzymatic hydrolysis had negative slope and indicated inverse relationship with the parameters. Therefore, the model allows researchers to make well interpretations of their results using linearized kinetic model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Influence of Alkyl Chain Cation Solvent Interactions on the Slope of ϕv v/s √C Curves in 1, 3-Butanediol-DMF Solvent Mixtures by Apparent Molar Volume Measurements

Indu Saxena, Archna ., Rikkam Devi, Vijay Kumar, Sadhana Gautam, Jaya Tripathi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/33860

The concept of Frank’s hypothesis (that is the effect of large tetra alkyl ammonium iodides on the solvent structure, especially in the ion – ion and ion – solvent interactions) was found to be not applicable when water was replaced by one of organic solvent. That is, if study involves ion- ion and ion – solvent interactions in 1, 3 – Butane diol – DMF solvent mixture. The densities of these mixture and some adding tetra alkyl ammonium iodide salts solutions at different concentrations (0.02 – 0.14 M) have been determined at 298.15 K using Magnetic Float Densitometer technique. The apparent molar volume (ϕv) and apparent molar volumes of transfer ∆ϕv0 (tr) of the electrolytes in above solvent mixtures were calculated. ϕv vs √C curves are plotted and explained the nature of molecular interactions by using slope (Sv) values. Also, the significant role of varying dielectric constants (ϵ) of the selected solvent mixtures in the ionic interaction is discussed. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Biodisinfection and Coagulant Properties of Mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya Seeds Extract for Water Treatment

O. J. Kingsely, J. C. Nnaji, B. I. Ugwu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/34041

Garcinia kola (Heckel) and Carica papaya (Linn.) seeds from ripe fruits were investigated for their disinfection and coagulation activity in water. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of alkaloid, saponins, flavonoid and tannins in both seeds. Physicochemical analysis of the water samples was determined before and after treatment with seed solutions. Results showed that mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya extracts had no significant effect (P > .05) on temperature, pH, conductivity and chloride but significantly reduced (P = .05) TDS, BOD, nitrate, nitrite and turbidity. The coagulation and antimicrobial efficiency of mixed Garcinia kola Heckel and Carica papaya seed solution at different concentrations on turbid surface water (collected from Ogbor Hill River in Aba) were studied and compared. Microbial reduction for mixed extract of Garcinia kola and Carica papaya solution showed antimicrobial efficiency of 41.67 – 83.33% for Total coliform, 47.85 – 60.89% for E. coli, 12.87-83.33% for Fecal streptococcus, 40.46 – 83.33% for staphylococcus Aureus and 50.43 – 74.36% for Total heterotrophic bacteria at different concentration. Mixed Garcinia kola and Carica papaya seed solution reduced the turbidity perfectly at the optimum doze of 3% at which 67.83% turbidity was removed by mixed solution. Garcina        kola and Carica papaya seeds are non toxic and do not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the treated water. So, as natural coagulants, both seeds may be potentially viable for treating water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Biodegradation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Films in Bioenvironmental Media

Nusaiba Islam, Sharmin Jahan Proma, Ashiqur Rahman

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32570

Solution casting method was used to prepare nanocellulose reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) from Oil palm empty fruit bunches. Different environmental test were used to investigate the biodegradability of the composite in soil and compost as well as in water and acidic solution. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The composite film with nanocellulose and without nanocellulose were compared, nanocellulose modified PVOH film showed more highly degradable by soil and compost as well as in enzymes. From the biodegradation study it was observed that the rate of degradation of the composite depend on the nanocellulose content. Surface morphology study of the composite exposed the distribution of nanocellulose in the PVOH.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drying Kinetics and Modelling of Mass Transfer in Thin Layer Convective Drying of Pineapple

Ravula Sudharshan Reddy, Parabhaker Reddy Ravula, Divyasree Arepally, Surender Reddy Munagala, Sheshasayana Golla

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/32746

The aim of the investigation was to study the drying characteristics of pineapple at different temperatures of 55, 60, 65, 70 and 75°C with 1.5 m/s constant air velocity. In the present study, the best drying model was selected to describe the drying behaviour, and to develop the moisture profile using COMSOL. Based on the best criteria, Verma et al. was chosen as the best fit to the experimental data. The predicted moisture ratio values obtained from COMSOL simulation and Verma et al. were good agreement with the experimental data.