Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Ultra-long Hollow Mercury Selenide (HgSe) Chalcogenide Nanofibers from Co and Ni Sacrificial Nanofibers

Nche George Ndifor-Angwafor, Mominou Nchare, Tchuifon Tchuifon Donald Raoul, Ngakou Sadeu Christian, Anagho Solomon Gabche, Nosang V. Myung

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/36678

A general synthetic method has been used to fabricate Co and Ni nanofibers. By using the electrospinning technique followed by galvanic displacement reaction, we have successfully prepared ultra-long hollow chalcogen and chalcogenide nanofibers. The outstanding features of this approach to get ultra-long sacrificial nanofibers with controlled dimensions and morphology, thereby imparting control over the composition and shape of the nanostructures evolved during galvanic displacement reaction are its simplicity, effectiveness and ease of assembly. The aim of this study is to exploit the structural and compositional changes during the formation of HgSe chalcogenide with a view of fabricating a mercury sensor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural and Thermal Studies on Racemic BaC4H4O6•H2O

Takanori Fukami, Seiya Hiyajyo, Shuta Tahara

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/36656

Single crystals of racemic barium tartrate monohydrate, BaC4H4O6·H2O, were grown at 308 K by a gel method using silica gel as the growth medium. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the single crystals. The space group symmetry (monoclinic P21/c) and structural parameters were determined at room temperature. The crystal structure consisted of BaO9 and BaO10 polyhedra, two independent C4H4O6 molecules, and O–H···O and C–H···O hydrogen bonds between adjacent H2O or C4H4O6 molecules. Weight losses due to thermal decomposition of racemic BaC4H4O6·H2O were found to occur in the temperature range of 300–1550 K. We suggested that the weight losses were caused by the evaporation of bound water molecules and the evolution of H2CO, H2, CO, and O2 gases from the two C4H4O6 molecules, and that the residual chalky white and black substances that remained as a mixture in the vessel after decomposition were barium oxide (BaO) and barium monocarbide (BaC), respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hybrid Adsorbent for Removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from Waters Using Submersible Device

Boris S. Smolyakov, Alexey K. Sagidullin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/36823

Mesoporous carbon and humic acid - native and oxidized with 5% or 15% hydrogen peroxide - were used to obtain hybrid adsorbents MC-HA, MC-HA5, and MC-HA15, respectively, for removing certain metal ions from water. Fine particles of the hybrid adsorbents were characterized by various methods. The concentration of the functional groups capable of binding metal cations in the hybrid adsorbent increased from 1.2 mmol/g in MC-HA to 1.8 mmol/g in MC-HA5 and MC-HA15. The adsorption capacity depends on pH, and at pH 6.0, it has the following order (mmol/g): Cu(II) (1.0) > Pb(II) (0.65) > Zn(II) (0.46) > Cd(II) (0.38). The adsorption process is fast and reaches the equilibrium at low concentration. The Langmuir isotherm fits the experimental adsorption data better than the Freundlich model. Prepared adsorbents were fixed on a highly porous matrix to obtain a material suitable for simple submersible devices. A high efficiency of multi-metal removal (96.1-100%) and recovery (83.5-100%) by MC-HA5 remained in at least five consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles of model wastewater treatment. The possibility of its use for the remediation of contaminated reservoirs is also shown in a full-scale experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Phytochemical Screening of Bologi (Senecio biafrae) and Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Leaves

A. D. Olasupo, O. V. Olagoke, A. B. Aborisade

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/35753

The Phytochemical screening of Senecio biafrae and Vernonia amygdalina showed the presence of saponins,tanins, phlobataninss, phenol,anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycoside, steroids, terpens, cardenolides, chalcones,quinones and terpenoids; fixed oil was also determined. The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard reference methods. The aqueous extract and crude extract of the leafy vegetables showed positive results in both solvents used for the extractions. Saponins, flavonoids, steroids and phenol were highly present in both extractions for Senecio biafrae while steroids, terpenoids and quinines were highly present in both extractions for Vernonia amygdalina. However, steroid were highly present in both extracts, meanwhile flavonoid were highly present in Senecio biafrae extract (aqueous extraction) but moderately present in Vernonia amygdalina extract (crude extraction). The presence of high secondary metabolites in these plants are good indication that if the two plants are subjected for further research and characterization, bioactive compounds with strong medicinal activities may be identified and isolated, chemical active compounds may also be discovered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation of Kinetic Model for Anaerobic Digestion of Pharmaceutical Wastewater

Loveth N. Emembolu, Joseph T. Nwabanne, Elijah C. Onu, Innocent O. Obiakor

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/34050

This work presents the treatment of the pharmaceutical wastewater using anaerobic digestion was carried out in this work. The results obtained showed that most of the wastewater parameters were reduced to acceptable levels after the digestion. The kinetic data was well described by the first-order kinetic equation. The following kinetic parameters: maximum rate of substrate utilization (K), half velocity or saturation constant (KS), endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), biomass or microbial growth yield (Y) and maximum specific microorganism growth rate (µmax) were determined as 0.0283 day-1, 26.911 mg/l, 0.0112 day-1, 116 mg/mg and 0.0316 day-1 respectively. This suggests that the anaerobic process would require inoculation. The model for the anaerobic digestion in a continuous flow reactor unit under homogeneous steady state was developed using the kinetic data obtained and the subsequent design table developed can be used in the actual plant design for the continuous process.