Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Turk’s Cap (Croton penduliflorus) Seed Oil

Ojo Ayomipo Martins, Amoo Isiaka Adekunle, Ayoade Gbolahan Wahab, Ojo Bukola Caroline

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/35835

Physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and antimicrobial potential of Croton penduliflorus seed oils were investigated using standard methods. Physicochemical properties of whole and dehulled seed oils were; colour (dull cinnamon- brown colour and cinnamon- brown colour), specific gravity (0.79 and 0.80), refractive index (1.46 and 1.46), acid value (14.5 and 23.6) mgKOH/g, free fatty acid (7.3 and 11.7) as oleic acid, peroxide value (1.14 and 1.60) meq/kg, iodine value (96.20 and 88.32) mg/g, saponification value (162.69 and 169.70) mg/g, and unsaponifiable matter (0.97 and 1.43) %  respectively. The fatty acid compositions of whole and dehulled seed oils respectively were; stearic (2.9 and 4.8) %, myristic (0.3 and 0.7) %, palmitic (25.2 and 26.1) %, oleic (36.4 and 37.2) %, linoleic (25.4 and 27.5) %, linolenic (0.2 and 0.3) % and arachidic acid (0.1 and 0.2) %. The fatty acid of whole and dehulled seeds contain high amount of nutritionally valuable unsaturated fatty acids especially in dehulled seed oil. The oils exhibited high antimicrobial properties which suggest their application in controlling or treatment of various bacterial and fungal infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mathematical Modelling, Energy and Exergy Analysis of Tomato Slices in a Mixed Mode Natural Convection Solar Dryer

Divyasree Arepally, Sudharshan Reddy Ravula, Gulshan Kumar Malik, Venkat Reddy Kamidi

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/34878

This paper reports the drying kinetics of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) with different drying loads in a fabricated mixed mode natural convection solar dryer. The energy utilization ratio (EUR) and exergetic efficiency (ȠEx) was also estimated. Tomato slices were dried to reach the final moisture content of below 8% (w.b) from 93.67% (w.b) in a period of 20 h, 23 h and 30 h for a load of 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2, respectively. Different thin layer mathematical models were selected to fit the experimental data. According to the statistical results, the approximation of Two-term was shown a better fit to the experimental drying for the load of 2 kg/m2 and 4 kg/m2 whereas the Logarithmic model was shown a better fit for a 6 kg/m2. The maximum value of Deff was obtained as 1.14×10-10 m2/s for a loading rate of 2 kg/m2.The EUR was found to be 24.21%, 41.42% and 58.03% for the load of 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2, respectively, and ȠEx was 59%, 54% and 50% for the three load conditions of 2 kg/m2, 4 kg/m2 and 6 kg/m2, respectively. The dryer efficiency increased from 17.33% to 35% with increased in load from 2 kg/m2 to 6 kg/m2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma-radiation-induced HDPE/Wood Composite: Studies of Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the Composites

Babacar Niang, Diene Ndiaye, Moustapha Lô Kholl, L. Y. El Hadj Babacar, Abdou Karim Diallo, Ansou Malang Badji

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/37423

Wood-polyethylene composites (WPEC) have been prepared with high density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix with pine wood, using maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) as coupling agent and gamma irradiated.  This paper discusses the behavior of the composites after exposure to various gamma irradiation doses (5 – 175 kGy) in the presence of oxygen. The dependence of mechanical properties on the integral dose for a constant dose rate of 4.8 kGy/h confirms the influence of the irradiation. The main objective of this study was also to examine the potential benefits of gamma irradiating WPEC in order to enhance some physical properties of WPC, namely morphological and thermal properties. The tensile and flexural modulus increased with dose level. The fracture surfaces of the composites show a noticeable difference with the increase in the dose rate.  The fracture surfaces of composites exhibited clear difference in failure with increasing the dose rate. Meanwhile, the thermal stability was found to increase with increasing irradiation dose as shown by the percentage loss in weight at different decomposition temperatures and the temperatures of the maximum values of the rate of reaction. Examination of the fracture surfaces of composites revealed a distinct difference in failure between irradiated and non-irradiated surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water Quality Assessment of River Bonsa in Tarkwa, a Mining-impacted Area of Ghana

Victus Bobonkey Samlafo, Emmanuel Ofosu Ofoe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/37251

The suitability of River Bonsa for drinking, without any chemical treatment was assessed using a developed and robust water quality index (WQI), with modification for the river under study. In evaluating WQI, nine parameters in water quality, which were harmful to human health were considered. They were pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides, sulphates and nitrates. On the basis of the computed WQI (55.054), River Bonsa fell within the poor for drinking water category. Hence the water needs to be treated before it can be drunk directly. Intensive education on water-related diseases is also needed to inform the inhabitants living along the river bank, who use the water from the river directly without any chemical treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-chemical, Heavy Metals and Radioisotope Concentratios in Underground Water from Kaduna, Kafanchan and Zaria Senatorial Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria

Muhammad D. Faruruwa, Oladoja S. Titilayo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/36970

The Physico-chemical parameters heavy metals and radioisotopes were analysed in drinking water collected from selected wells in three senatorial areas (Kaduna, Kafanchan and Zaria) in Kaduna state. The water samples were analysed using the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods for the physico-chemical analysis, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for the heavy metal determination and also the X-Ray Florescence (ED-XRF) for the radioisotopes determination. The results obtained were compared with the permissible limits recommended by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. The results for the water samples are as follows: pH (2.06 – 6.56), Conductivity (0.14 – 0.78 mS/cm), Temperature (25.2 – 28.4°C), TDS (0.07 – 0.78 mg/L), COD (11.52 – 27.52 mg/L), Cu (0.0000 – 0.0560 mg/L), Cr (0.0005 – 0.0056 mg/L), Cd (0.0000 – 0.0040 mg/L), Pb (0.0004 – 0.0080 mg/L), Ni (0.0000 – 0.0048 mg/L), Fe (0.0000 – 0.0900 mg/L) and Co (0.0001 – 0.0040 mg/L). Thorium and Radium were not detected in the water samples collected from all the sampling locations. The water quality analysis results showed that some of the well water samples had pH, Ni and Cd values that were above the recommended limits and all the water samples had COD values that were above the recommended values and as such were considered not good for drinking.