Open Access Original Research Article

Levels and Seasonal Variations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment of Alariver, Ondo State, Nigeria

E. O. Abata

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/35153

To assess the level of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Ala river, surface sediments were collected from ten locations along Ala River, Ondo state, Nigeria and analyzed for the presence of 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. ∑PCBs levels ranged from< 0.9 - < 3 g/kg dry weight. The levels of ∑PCBs were very low and there were no significant differences in values of ∑PCBs in the wet and dry seasons.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Bio Sorbents for the Treatment of Simulated Dyes Waste Water

Atiya Firdous

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/38363

Water pollution is one of the burning issues of today's world; it is the primary cause of different diseases in living beings. Textile effluent is the primary source of water pollution. Marine lifespan, environment and our ecosystem are affected severely by the dumping of dyes from industries into the water. The objective of this research is adsorption, thermodynamics and kinetic studies of two different organic dyes onto abundantly available inexpensive adsorbents like Phoenix dactylifera (date pits), tea waste (tea leaves), Zea covering (corn husk) and Prunus persica (peach seeds) for the elimination of acidic (Congo red) and basic (Malachite Green oxalate) dyes from solutions. Selected adsorbents have high surface reactivity and adsorption capability to eliminate the mentioned dyes from the wastewater system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterisation of an Αlpha-amyrin Acetate Isolated from the Leaves of Microtrichia perotitii DC (Asteraceae)

M. N. Abdullahi, N. Ilyas, I. Hajara, Y. M. Kabir

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/39721

Aims: Microtrichia perotitii DC belongs to the family Asteraceae and is widely distributed in West African countries of Nigeria, Senegal, Mali, Port of Guinea, Sieraleone, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Dahomey. In Nigeria it is found in northern part of the country where it is known as Maijankai or Sawun keke in Hausa, Osete in Igbira and Shaware pepe in Yoruba languages. The herb is locally used for treating pain related diseases which includes toothaches, cuts and burns, rashes in children, skin diseases, rheumatism, diarrhea and jaundice. It is on the basis of its significance in trado-medicinal usage that an attempt was being made to isolate the active compounds in the herb. Previous phytochemical screening of the leaves of the herb has confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, cardiac glycosides, triterpenes, proteins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and steroids.

Methods: The leaves of the herb were extracted in methanol in a soxhlet apparatus. The crude extract obtained that is Microtrichia perotitii methanol extract (MPME) was fractionated in methanol, ether, aqueous, and n-butanol. Each of these soluble fractions was tested for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against laboratory animals (mice and rats). The most active fraction was n-butanol which was obtained as a white milky solid A(C1) and its melting point range was 224 – 226°C. The compound after re-crystallisation` was subjected to spectroscopic analyses with Infrared, proton and carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.

Results: The data obtained for the compound when compared with literature value was found to be an alpha-amyrin acetate.

Conclusion: An alpha-amyrin acetate was isolated from the leaf of Microtrichia perotitii for the very first time. Alpha-amyrin acetate has been reported to have broad spectrum of biological activities against some diseases and ailments and could therefore be the leading principle behind many of the ethnomedicinal applications of Microtrichia perotitii.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Nitrates and Phosphates in Drinking Water Samples Collected from Tea Growing Community, Nandi Hills, Kenya

J. Tarus Sharon, Lagat Grace, Mitei Cheruiyot, Choge Phoebe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/39271

Nitrates and phosphates are among the major inorganic pollutants in the environment, primarily contributed by nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers, organic manures, human and animal wastes, and industrial effluents through biochemical activities of microorganisms. In Nandi Hills tea plantations, about 5,000 hectares of land are under mature tea and fertilizer is applied at a rate of 140 Kg /ha / year, with N: P: K being the commonly used fertilizer. Therefore, these inorganic ions can be discharged to water bodies through leaching and surface run-off. This study thus aimed at determining the concentration of nitrates and phosphate ions in borehole and stream water in Nandi Hills, Kenya. About 50 samples of drinking water (stream and borehole) were collected. The samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of nitrate ions, phosphate ions using cadmium reduction method and Uv-visible spectrophotometry. From the results obtained in the study, stream water recorded nitrate and phosphate concentrations of 2.91±0.74 and 0.30±0.08 mg/l respectively. In addition, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in both nitrate and phosphate levels among the three sampling points in the three streams. However, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in both nitrate and phosphate concentrations among the three streams used in the study. In borehole water, nitrate and phosphate levels were 1.69±0.79 and 0.29±0.07 mg/l respectively. Both nitrate and phosphate levels in stream and borehole water were found to be within the WHO acceptable limits. The study therefore concluded that concentrations of nitrate and phosphate ions in drinking water were within the WHO acceptable limits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modification, Characterization and Use of Imperata cylindrical (Toofa) Fibre as Oil Sorbent

N. E. Alpha, J. T. Barminas, S. A. Osemeahon

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2017/39420

The effect of Acetylation on Imperata cylindrical fibre using acetic anhydride was investigated. The acetylation was carried out in a free solvent system under mild conditions using acetic anhydride in the presence of calcium chloride as a catalyst at a temperature of 100°C for 3 hour. The crude oil and the Imperata cylindrical sorbent were characterized, the sorption behaviors studied were found to increase with increase in weight per gain percent (WPG%). The WPG% and oil sorption capacity indicated the success of acetylation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used for the analysis of unmodified and modified Imperata cylindrical sorbent to further examine the success of acetylation. In the spectra of FT-IR of the acetylated Imperata cylindrical material evidence of acetylation is clearly proven by, the enhancement of 1755 cm-1, as 1755.31-1715.97 cm-1 which are carbonyl C=O stretching of esters, the enhancement of 1494.97 -1403.35 cm-1 of (C-H bond in –O(C=O)-CH3 and the appearance of 1154.69- 1154.43 cm-1 which is a C=O stretching of acetyl group. The values for correlation coefficient (R2) showed that the model fitted the Langmuir isotherm (R2 Imperata cylindrical 1.00) better than the Freundlich isotherm, indicating that the adsorption process was monolayer. The higher oil sorption capacity shown by the modified Imperata cylindrical sorbent compared to the lower oil sorption capacity of unmodified, indicated that the modified Imperata cylindrical sorbent can substitute for synthetic fibres and recommended for oils spill clean-up in contaminated environments.