Open Access Short communication

Synthesis, Structural Elucidation and Trypanocidal Activity of 2-thiocyanil-1,4-naphthoquinone

Henrique José Coroado dos Santos, Igor Oliveira Maciel, Ana Carolina Ferreira de Albuquerque, Mauro Barbosa de Amorim, Luiz Dione Barbosa de Melo, Raphael Salles Ferreira Silva

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40288

Aims: This work describes the synthesis of 2-thiocyanil-1,4-naphthoquinone and evaluates its trypanocidal activity.

Study Design: Synthesis was carried under conventional heating, microwave and ultrasound irradiation. Molecular modeling was employed to assign correctly the thiocyanil group upon the structure, the quinone was tested against Trypanossoma cruzi.

Place and Duration of Study: Synthesis: Department of Chemistry, IFRJ-Campus Rio de Janeiro; Trypanocidal Activity: Department of Biotechnology, IFRJ-Campus Rio de Janeiro, Molecular Modeling: Walter Mors Institute for Research on Natural Products UFRJ-Rio de Janeiro; between June 2015 and July 2017.

Methodology: The syntheses were performed under conventional conditions, ultrasound and microwave irradiation. The trypanocidal activity of the 2-thiocyanil-1,4-naphthoquinone was evaluated against epimastigote form and expressed as IC50 value, corresponding to the concentration that causes lysis of 50% of the parasites. Relative IC50 value was obtained by non-linear regression method. The ¹³C NMR shielding constants (σ) were calculated, taking into account Boltzmann statistics, by a gauge including atomic orbital-hybrid density functional theory (GIAO-HDFT) calculation procedure, previously published by some of us.

Results: The microwave irradiation was the most efficient method to synthetize the 2-thiocyanil-1,4-naphthoquinone. This compound showed high activity against Trypanosoma cruzi with a IC50 3.27 ± 2.2. The structure was correctly assigned with molecular modeling support.

Conclusion: In conclusion, 2- thiocyanil-1,4-naphthoquinone was efficiently synthesized in this work and its trypanocidal activity justify further in vivo studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Studies on Potential Industrial Applications of Conorandos panados Seed Oil

I. I. Nkafamiya

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/39895

Conorandus panados plant known in Higgi language as ‘Mnizee’ in Michika Local Government of Adamawa State, Nigeria, was found to be a plant of some industrial importance. The hexane extract of the seed oil was Physico-chemically analyzed; functional groups determined using IR, fatty acid composition qualitatively determined using GC-MS. The oil yield was 120 cm3/400g of the grounded seed and the colour of the oil was yellow. The results of the physicochemical analysis revealed the following; Acid value 0.052 mgKOH/g, iodine value 107/100 g, Peroxide value 2.600 meq H2O2, Saponification value 788 mgKOH/g, relative density 0.906 g/ml (sp = 0.906),  Refractive index 1.47, the percentage yield is 27.18%. The fatty acids detected were 2-Methyl-4-heptenal/C8H18O,4-Heptanal/C7H12O, 1,5-Hexadiene/C6H10, 2-isononenal Zinc/C9H15ZnO, 9,12-OctadecadienoicAcid/ C18H32O2, Oleic Acid/ C8H34O2 acid, 1,2-Binaphthalene/C20H14, Undec-10-ynoic Acid/ C11H18O2, 5-Hexenoic Acid/C6H18O2, Cyclopentaneundecanoic Acid/C16H30O2, 9,12-Octadecadienoyl Chloride /C18H31ClO, Acetamide/C2H5NO. In this study, the result obtained vis a vis; saponification value, iodine value, acid value coupled with the presence of oleic acid, makes C. panados seed oil suitable for use as a paint binder, and soap production. It is also a good candidate for foam making this is due to the polyols of this oil will give a high number of OH, which is suitable for foam production. The preliminary investigation reveals that C. panados seed oil could be used as paint binder, soap making and foam production pending further research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Specifications of Raw Olive Pomace as an Energy Source: A Statistical Approach

Khalid M. Tawarah

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40045

The present article is concerned with providing statistics-based specifications for raw olive pomace in Jordan. These specifications, together with other quantitative data pertaining to the last few olive harvest seasons, were believed to be essential for recognizing the relevance of raw olive pomace (jift) as a valuable renewable energy source in Jordan. Calculations based on average annual production of raw olive pomace, net calorific values, and the 2017 summer prices of raw olive pomace, diesel, and kerosene had shown that about thirteen million USD can be saved when raw olive pomace is combusted for heat generation instead of diesel or kerosene. The raw olive pomace samples used in the present work were collected over five olive harvest seasons, (2006, 2008-2011). The replicates of several measured characteristic properties of raw olive pomace were treated as one data set for deriving olive pomace specifications based on sound statistical analysis. The main results of the statistical analysis are those concerned with the 95% confidence intervals of the populations’ means of several raw olive pomace characteristics. The results obtained on dry basis are: 3.070 ± 0.170, 1.079 ± 0.125, 6.787 ± 0.306, 52.322 ± 1.171, and 35.271 ± 1.115% for the percentages of ash, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, respectively. Also, the gross and net calorific values were found to be 22.269 ± 0.793 and 20.542 ± 0.795 MJ/Kg, respectively. The estimated 95% confidence interval of a population mean was assumed to represent the upper and lower limits of a given property of the raw olive pomace. The findings of the present work will be considered for developing standard specifications for raw olive pomace in Jordan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Nickel from Plating Wastewater Using the Magnetic Flocculant PG-M

Le Thi Xuan Thuy, Nguyen Thi Sao Mai, Ho Hong Quyen, Mikito Yasuzawa, Tran Xuan Vu

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/39902

In this study, a new kind of magnetic particle functionalized biopolymer (PG-M) was applied to remove nickel from plating wastewater. The key parameters of pH, adsorption time, the mass of adsorbent, and shaking speed were investigated to optimize conditions. Batch experiments were conducted with actual samples collected from a manufacturer having an initial nickel concentration of 143.73 mg/L at pH 5. The highest removal efficiency of Ni2+ ions was greater than 99% when 1 g/L of the PG-M material was added to the solution (pH=10) and stirred at 200 rpm for 20 min. The desorption of this adsorbent was performed in a 0.1 M solution of HCl and the removal efficiency of Ni2+ ions unchanged after nine cycles. The Ni2+-loaded PG-M magnetic flocculant was easily separated from the solution by an external magnet.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Investigations on the Physico-mechanical Properties of Jute Fiber Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Resin (UPR) Composites

Mohammad Ismail, Md. Ruhul Amin Foisal, Ajoy Kumer, Omma Taslima Nasrin, Muhammad Zakarul Islam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40021

Unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) is one of the most important matrices for polymer composite application. Jute fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) composites is the most desirable products for consumer and industrial uses and natural fibres as a reinforcing material that was fabricated by hand lay-up technique. Cobalt octoate was used as an accelerator at room temperature. The UPR jute mat composites can show different moulding pressure and duration of moulding in mechanical and thermal properties and with the increase of moulding load mechanical properties such as flexural strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), elongation is increased but with excessive moulding pressure the UPR comes out from the composite and increases the % of fiber content which causes reduction the values of mechanical properties. Water absorption was increased with time and the rate is more in the initial state. UTS remains unchanged up to 195 Minutes and then increases with the increase of pressing time of composite. Due to long-lasting pressure composite become more compact, UTS become higher. To optimize the moulding load and time of pressing shows that 180 KN pressure for 240 minutes gives the best mechanical and physical properties.