Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Some New 4-[2-(2-methylbenzoxy)-benzylidenamino]-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one Derivatives with Their Antioxidant Properties

Haydar Yüksek, Buket Göksu, Sevda Manap, Murat Beytur, Özlem Gürsoy-Kol

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-29
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40458

Aims: To synthesize heterocycylic Schiff bases and evaluate their antioxidant activity.

Study Design: Synthesizing some new 4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one derivatives and determining their chemical structure via IR and NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized new compounds were analyzed for their in vitro potential antioxidant activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Kafkas University, Kars, Turkey. Between February 2014 to February 2015.

Methodology: Nine new 3-alkyl(aryl)-4-[2-(2-methylbenzoxy)-benzylidenamino]-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones (3) were synthesized by the reactions of 3-alkyl(aryl)-4-amino-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones (1) with 2-(2-methylbenzoxy)-benzaldehyde (2) which had also been synthesized by the reactions of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 2-methylbenzoyl chloride by using triethylamine.

Results: Schiff bases were synthesized and their structures were determined with spectral methods. Antioxidant evaluation were carried out and discussed.

Conclusion: Synthesis and structural determination of the new 3-alkyl(aryl)-4-[2-(2-methylbenzoxy)-benzylidenamino)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-ones (3) was successfully done. The antioxidant evaluation was determined.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Construction of Compact Voltaic Cell to Perform Electrochemical Analysis

Ephraim Musa Dallatu, Rufus Sha’Ato, Ishaq Shuaibu Eneji, Adams Udoji Itodo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40347

Conventional Voltaic cells are characterized as cumbersome setup to handle, with fragile open ended glassware, tubes, troughs or tanks which are prone to interference and contamination. In this study, design was made to construct compact, durable and portable unit of Voltaic cell. Compactability tests show that the designed and constructed Voltaic cell is a compact unit. Conventional and the constructed (compact) Voltaic cell were separately used to perform potentiometry with various concentrations of electrolytes. Relationship between concentration of stock and standard solutions (mol L-1) of CuSO4.7H2O and 1.0 M ZnSO4.7H2O and potential difference (Volts) generated  were determined at the range of 1.0 mol L-1 to  4.0 mol L-1  of the electrolytes: conventional Voltaic cell measured 0.05 Volts to 0.11 Volts while Compact Voltaic cell measured 0.08 Volts to 0.14 Volts respectively. Statistical comparison of conventional and compact Voltaic cells at 95.0% percent confidence level indicated a significant difference in their performance. However at 99.0% - 99.9% confidence level the comparison showed that there is no significant difference in their performance. The results of this study showed that Perspex is a good material for constructing compact, durable and portable Voltaic cells. The compact Voltaic cell is a highly sensitive tools as revealed by its ability to measure higher potential difference than the conventional cell; that concentration of electrolytes and potential difference have a positive correlation: as the concentration increases, the potential difference increases in the Voltaic cell; and statistical analysis of data obtained from the conventional and compact Voltaic cells revealed that the two sets of methods do not agree significantly with each other at 95.00% confidence level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Product Qualities of Biodiesel Produced from a Process Intensify Pilot Plant

Haruna Ibrahim, Abdulkarim S. Ahmed, Idris M. Bugaje, Ibrahim A. Mohammed-Dabo

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40501

An investigation on process intensification on biodiesel production was carried with Jatropha curcas seed oil, methanol and five solid base catalysts in a process intensified pilot plant. This Process Intensify Pilot Plant had not the following unit operations as in conventional plants; Neutralizer, Washer, Dryer, Heat exchanger and Condenser to reduce production cost. Five samples of biodiesel were produced with 3 moles of methanol to 1 mole of oil and 1.5 % catalyst loading (w/w of oil). Methyl ester yields of 97.4, 96.94, 95.76, 99.99 and 98.25 % catalyzed by bulk calcium oxide (CaO), super base calcium oxide (CaO/(NH4)2CO3), bulk magnesium oxide (MgO), calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (CaO/MgO) and 10 % impregnated potassium on calcium oxide/magnesium oxide (K-CaO/MgO) were obtained respectively. The products were analyzed in accordance with ASTM, EN and ISO standards for biodiesel and were found satisfactory for use in compression ignition engines. All the biodiesel samples were found not to be easily oxidized as they did not have poly-unsaturated esters such as: linolelaidate (18:2) and linoleneate (18:3). It was found that this process produced clean biodiesel devoid of glycerol. Also one of the findings from this study is transesterification does not support reversibility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chromoleana odorata and Hevea brasilensis as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminium in Acid Solution

C. O. L. Ubani, N. A. Nwoye, I. E. Otuokere, F. C. Nwadire

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40095

The methanolic leaf extracts of Chromoleana odorata and Hevea brasiliensis were tested for corrosion inhibitory effects towards aluminum by varying the concentration of hydrochloric acid as 0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M HCl. The anti corrosion efficiency of the plant extract was studied by means of weight loss method. It was observed from the experiment, that in the absence of the plant extracts, the weight loss increases indicating an increase in corrosion. Conversely when the plant extracts were introduced, there were remarkable decrease in weight loss leading to reduction in corrosion and an increase in inhibitory efficiency. Upon comparative analysis on the inhibitory efficiency of the two extracts, it was discovered that Chromoleana odorata gave the higher inhibition efficiency of 62% than the Hevea brasiliensis which gave 57% inhibition efficiency. This study shows that Chromoleana odorata gave better inhibition against corrosion to aluminium than Hevea brasiliensis. FT-IR spectra of the plant extracts were also examined to elucidate the possible functional groups that may be responsible for the anti-corrosion activity of these bio-degradable extracts in methanolic solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Water and Sediment of River Benue in Makurdi Metropolis, Nigeria

M. I. Arowojolu, S. M. Tongu, A. U. Itodo, S. T. Yinusa, K. A. Basheeru, S. Mejida

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/38267

Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in water and sediment samples from River Benue in Makurdi metropolis. Samples of water and sediment were collected from 6 sites in River Benue during the dry season. The samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and soxhlet extraction methods respectively and analyzed for acenaphthene, fluoranthene, 2-methynaphthalene and naphthalene using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the samples contained very low concentrations of these PAHs (concentrations varied from 0.06 to 8.02 ppb).  So, there was little or no threat to fish, wildlife or humans, based on low concentrations determined in the samples but accumulation over time may pose a health risk. Their sources were thought to be natural and anthropogenic, and the varied concentrations at the various points were due to different activities at those points.