Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Rhizoclonium grande Saturated Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters on Physicochemical and Fuel Properties of Jatropha curcas Biofuel

J. M. Kahindo, C. Sumesh, R. Musau, J. O. Odalo, T. Thoruwa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/41568

Aims: The effect of Rhizoclonium grande saturated fatty acid ethyl esters on physicochemical and fuel properties of Jatropha curcas biofuel was assessed.

Study Design: Probability and purposeful sampling methods were employed. Randomized block design comprising of three blocks, Rhizoclonium grande and Jatropha curcas oils, the ethyl esters and their blends. Each sample from a block was subjected to several treatments with three replications per treatment.

Place and Duration of Study: the Technical University of Mombasa, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Government Chemist and Kenya Pipeline Laboratories in Mombasa between February 2012 and September 2014.

Methodology: Algae was collected from Shimoni in Kwale, Shelly beach, Jamvi la Wageni in Likoni and English point in Mombasa to obtain algae oil. J. curcas seeds were collected from Shimba hills, Kwale. Transesterification of J. curcas and Rhizoclonium grande oil was carried out separately followed by GC-MS characterisation of the ethyl esters. Ethyl esters from J. curcas oils (JOFAEE) were blended with algae oil FAEE (5-25%) to obtain JAB. Physico-chemical and fuel properties of JAB were assessed. Statistical analysis was done using STATA/SE 13.0 at 95% confidence level (P<0.05) two-tailed.

Results: Rhizoclonium grande produced 6.72 - 10.46 % v/w oil. From GC-MS analysis the algae oil fatty acid esters contained pentadecanoic acid ethyl ester, dodecanoic acid ethyl ester, tetradecanoic acid ethyl ester and hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester. There was an observed significant difference in calorific value (P=0.03), kinematic viscosity (P=0.001), pour point (P=0.001) and cloud point (P=0.001) between JO FAEE and JAB samples attributed to the presence of algae oil saturated FAEE. The JAB showed no significant difference in fuel properties with standard biodiesel B100 (P>0.05).

Conclusion: From the findings, the physicochemical and fuel properties of biofuel from J. curcas can be improved by the use of saturated FAEE from R. grande for sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Study of Chemical, Mechanical, Thermal, and Morphological Properties of Poly Lactic Acid-nano Hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffold

Md Ruhul Amin Foisal, Ajoy Kumer, Umma Taslima Nasrin, Mohammad Ismail, Mohammad Saiful Alam

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/41184

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics have been recognized as substitute material in bone due to their chemical and biological similarity to human bone tissue. Nano HAp powders were synthesized by wet precipitation technique using aqueous suspension of 0.5 M calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] with 0.3 M orthophosphoric acid [H3PO4] adding drop-wise and vigorously stirred to control the crystal size at nanoscale room temperature and pH 10.0were maintained to obtain a high purity of HAp. The HAp has been characterized and confirmed its nano crystal formation by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Then HAp has been pushed through polylactic acid (PLA) to make the composite scaffold blocks. Nano HAp-PLA composite scaffold blocks were produced by freeze drying. Different loading concentrations of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles with the polylactic acid (PLA)fabricated scaffold blocks was investigated on their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. The chemical and thermal properties of scaffold blocks were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the simultaneous thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA), the differential thermal analyzer (DTA) and thermos-mechanical analyzer (TMA). Crystallographic characterization was done by X-Ray diffraction and morphological characterization by scanning electron microscope. From the mechanical, thermal, chemical, and morphological analysis, it can estimate that the scaffold blocks possess microporous structure with 60% porosity having low moisture content 3% maximum, uniform nHAp distribution through scaffold block and15% HAp contained scaffold block possess maximum load holding ability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diffusion-Chemisorption and Pseudo-Second Order Kinetic Models for Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Modified and Unmodified Oil Palm Fruit Fibre

Anthony Obike, Jude Igwe, Chigbundu Emeruwa, Kelechi Uwakwe, Christopher Aghalibe

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/41459

Aims: To investigate the kinetics of Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) absorption from aqueous solution using modified and unmodified oil palm fruit fibre using diffusion-chemisorption and pseudo-second order kinetic models.

Study Design: The use of oil palm fruit fibre as absorbent for heavy metals absorption from aqueous solution.

Place and Duration of Study: Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria. The duration was about six (6) months.

Methodology: Majorly, instrumental methodology was used for the detection of the heavy metals. Batch absorption experiment for Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) were carried out for each absorbent (UOPF, 0.5MOPF and 1.0MOPF). Filtrations were done using whatman no 41-filter paper. The filtrate of each metal solution was analyzed using Shumadzu model 6650 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.

Results: The results showed that chemical modification of the absorbent increased its absorption efficiency which followed the sequence; 1.0MOPF > 0.5MOPF > UOPF. The results also showed that Ni(II) was more removed than the other metals using the three absorbents. Diffusion-chemisorption and pseudo second order kinetic equations were used to model the sorption experimental data. The pseudo-second order model gave better fit to the sorption studies. This implies that the sorption process was of chemisorption mechanism. The initial sorption rate (ho) was higher for Ni (II) ions with values of 0.484, 3.675 and 2.964 for UOPF, 0.5MOPF and 1.0MOPF respectively, and lowest for Sn (II) with values of 0.035, 0.111 and 0.828 for UOPF, 0.5MOPF and 1.0MOPF respectively.

Conclusion:  The results of this study showed that oil palm fruit fibre can be efficiently used as a low-cost alternative for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Sn(II) from aqueous solutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Metal Levels in Clarias gariepinus and Water from River Benue and Commercial Fish Ponds in Makurdi

S. Targuma, I. S. Eneji, R. Sha’Ato

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/41806

Aims: The present study assessed toxic metals content in the water, feeds and fish organs (liver, gills, and kidney) of Clarias gariepinus from River Benue and selected fish ponds within Makurdi metropolis of Benue State.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: A total of eighteen (18) Clarias gariepinus fish samples were purchased within Makurdi metropolitan area of Benue State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Toxic heavy metals in fish samples were digested using standard procedures and determined using HG-AAS.

Results: The mean concentration (mg/kg) of heavy metals in fish organs from fish ponds and River Benue are respectively as follows –As: 0.90 and 0.77; Hg: 0.91 and 1.75; Pb: 1.42 and 1.67. The mean concentration (mg/kg) of As, Hg and Pb in feeds were (0.13, ND, and 0.13 respectively), water (mg/L) 0.10, 0.30 and 1.57, respectively. Hg and Pb had higher concentrations in river Benue compared to the fish ponds. However, As was higher in the fish ponds compared to river Benue. With the exception of As that falls within the EU set limit of fish, Hg and Pb are above the WHO and EU set limits of fish.

Conclusion: It is thus evident that adequate environmental policies are necessary to reduce the risk of heavy metal contamination of fish in Makurdi.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Physicochemical Properties of an Aquatic Environment

O. C. Eze, B. W. Tukura, B. O. Atolaiye, O. D. Opaluwa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/40942

The study was carried out to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in the levels of some physicochemical parameters in water and sediments from Mpape River, Abuja, Nigeria. The samples were collected along the river bank in dry and rainy seasons from five (5) locations and were analysed using standard methods. Levels of pH, nitrate, phosphate, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in water did not vary according to sites. However, the highest levels of electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were recorded at site 4 for both seasons. During the dry season, levels of pH (7.36±0.16), EC (300.73±0.05 µs/cm), TDS (185.11±0.10 mg/L), BOD (0.98±0.30 mg/L), SO42- (9.8±0.14 mg/L) and Cl- (38.00±0.15 mg/L) in water were higher. Concentrations (3.42±0.10 mg/L) of dissolved oxygen (DO), PO43- (5.66±0.11 mg/L) and NO3- (0.21±0.06 mg/L) increased in rainy season. In sediments, levels of physicochemical parameters did not vary according to sites, except for PO43- and organic matter (OM). pH of sediments was more acidic (6.23±0.05) and higher in the dry season. Levels of OM (2.66±0.11 %), PO43- (5.06 mg/Kg), NO3- (0.21±0.09 mg/Kg), CEC (0.29±0.05 Cmol/Kg) and Cl- (0.17±0.02 mg/Kg) in sediments were higher in rainy season. Levels of physicochemical parameters in water and sediments for the two seasons were not significantly different (P ≤ .05), except for BOD, SO42- and Cl- in water. Levels of physicochemical parameters of water were within the WHO/FAO permissible limits for irrigation. The acidic nature of sediments may lead to remobilization of heavy metals adsorbed onto the sediment surfaces into the water column, which may result to pollution.