Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Antimicrobial Properties of Novel Nickel(II) Complexes with Sulfanilamide and Sulfamerazine Drugs

G. Prajapat, R. Gupta, N. Bhojak

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44158

Synthesis and characterisation of metal-based Sulfa drugs have gained much attention in the past few decades, owing to their enhanced therapeutic applications. The present work aims to synthesise novel complexes of Nickel(II) with Sulfanilamide and Sulfamerazine, to prepare new metallodrugs with potential biological activities. The synthesis involves microwave irradiation method that provides a greener way for the synthesis of metallodrugs. Elemental, spectral and thermogravimetric analysis has been carried out to decipher the structural and coordination properties of drug molecules with the metal ion and to interpret the thermal Stability and decomposition behaviour of the complexes. Finally, the microbiological investigations have been done to explore the antibacterial activities of newly formed complexes. The study has been conducted at the Green Chemistry Research Centre, Govt. Dungar College, Bikaner and Ceramic Electrical Research and Development Centre, Bikaner. Effective metal drug coordination was confirmed by marked shifts observed in the UV/VIS spectrum of the complexes with respect to the parent drugs. FT-IR spectral studies revealed that sulfanilamide molecule coordinated to the metal ion only through its sulfonamidic nitrogen, whereas sulfamerazine molecule exhibited identity, chelating through its pyrimidic and sulfonamidic nitrogen atoms. Practically unaffected IR bands corresponding to the ligand SO2 group ruled out any possibility of coordination through O atom. Thermal stability of the complexes was determined through thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA). Important thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for their decomposition reactions were hence evaluated using Coats and Redfern integral equation. Antibacterial activities for both the complexes and pure drugs were screened against E. coli,         S. aureus and B. subtilis. Whereas the efficacy of sulfamerazine is substantially enhanced upon metallation, the sulfamerazine complex showed diminished antibacterial properties as compared to its parent drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Occurrence and Fate Assessment of Potential Emerging Contaminants in the Flowing Surface Waters

Miraji Hossein, Othman Chande, Ngassapa Faustin, Mureithi Erwin

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44211

The current study investigated the occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) at the Msimbazi and Kizinga Rivers in Tanzania by using GC/MS QP2010 Ultra Shimadzu. The cross-country distribution along East Africa countries and the fate of ECs were studied for extrapolation and insight the extent of aquatic pollution in East Africa. It was revealed that all pharmaceuticals such as 0.0060 ppm of paracetamol, 0.0073 ppm of cetirizine, 0.0024 ppm of metronidazole and 0.0016 ppm of ibuprofen that were frequently quantified were also listed in the first-line medical prescriptions, they are available at over-the-counter supply and mostly used for the treatment of prominent diseases in Tanzania. It was further observed that quantified pharmaceuticals in Tanzania are certain in Kenya and Uganda since these countries have common diseases causing death and a similar list of essential medicines. Moreover, qualitative experiments identified the existence of norethindrone, caffeine, and polysiloxanes, which are proof of anthropogenic origin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oxidation of Catechol and Hydroquinone in Aqueous Media by Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Using Thin Layer of TiO2 P25

Dègninou Houndedjihou, Tomkouani Kodom, A. Akpénè Dougna, Ibrahim Tchakala, Gbandi Djaneye-Boundjou, Limam Moctar Bawa

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44176

Catechol and hydroquinone, two phenolic compounds, have been studied. The oxidation of the two chemicals by heterogeneous photocatalysis TiO2 P25 Degussa based was investigated using a laboratory scale reactor and ultraviolet-A lamp. Thin layers of TiO2 on stainless steel were prepared by electrophoretic deposition. Phenolic compounds were monitored by High- Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a phenyl Xbridge column and Photodiode Array (PDA) detector. The effects of some parameters such as initial concentration of phenolic compounds (50–150 µM), initial pH (2–11) and the degradation kinetics of the two chemicals have been evaluated. The results showed that the degradation rate of catechol and hydroquinone decrease when the initial concentration of pollutants increases whereas the natural pH (5.7 and 4.8 respectively for catechol and hydroquinone) has been found favourable for the degradation of the two chemicals. The first order kinetic fits the oxidation rate of the two chemicals using Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Two intermediate by-products have been identified: by-product absorbing at the wavelength of 246 nm (1,4-benzoquinone) identified in the case of hydroquinone photodegradation and another intermediate by-product absorbing at the wavelength of 256 nm (probably hydroxybenzoquinone).

Open Access Original Research Article

Cooking Qualities of Thin Layered Humidified Paddy

K. Ch. S. Saikiran, N. Venkatachalapathy

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/42414

A thin layer dryer was modified by replacing the heating section of the dryer was replaced with humidification chamber. The equipment consists of a blower which sucks ambient air, which was passed through heater coils. There was a nozzle located after the heating unit, which sprays               water as tiny droplets. The heated air was passed on the tiny droplets of the water, now the                      air gets humidified and is passed on to the paddy which was placed in a perforated tray as                        a thin layer. After undergoing humidification (soaking), steaming, drying and milling, the cooking qualities of the humidified paddy were determined. The extent of humidification of paddy was studied by knowing the cooking characteristics of the parboiled rice. The different cooking qualities determined during the study were cooking time, water uptake ratio, grain elongation ratio on cooking.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Effects of Propolis: Review Article

Rezzan Aliyazicioglu, Seyda Kanbolat

Chemical Science International Journal, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/CSJI/2018/44457

The term apitherapy refers to the medical use of bee products, including honey, propolis, royal jelly, pollen, beeswax and, most notably, bee venom. For example, propolis is known to exhibit antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. Growing importance is being attached to the discovery of medications derived from natural sources. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed analysis of the bioactive compounds in propolis and their biological effects, beneficial or deleterious.